5G NR: mmWave Technology #Part-2
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Now we will discuss over mmWave Technology Millimeter wave, which is also known as extremely high frequency (EHF) so it is important that you stay connected with me to the last of video and if you are watching this video on youtube please click on red subscribe button and bell button to enable the email notification if watching this video on Facebook please click to like and follow the page Now we will discuss over mmWave Technology Millimeter wave, which is also known as extremely high frequency (EHF) or very high frequency (VHF) if we talk about freq range Millimeter wave (also millimeter band) is the band of spectrum between 30 gigahertz (Ghz) to 300 GHz. Here Formula is …lemda equal to c by f…where lemda is wavelength and f is frequency One question come here …Why its name is mmWave Radio signals are measured by their wavelengths. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency. because lemda=c/f , lemda is wavelength…and f is frequency That means wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency Frequency will be heigher the wavelength lemda will be very small Here i told…mmwave is the band of spectrum between 30 gigahertz (Ghz) to 300 GHz. If we will convert 30 GHz in millimeter then it will be approx 10 millimeter and if you will convert 300 GHz in mmwave …then it will be 1 millimeter That means mmwave have short wave length …. range from 10 millimeter to 1 millimeter 5G signals will use wavelengths (between 30 and 300 gigahertz) that are measured in millimeters. That’s why 5G is considered a millimeter wave technology Two type of frequency range is define in 5G-NR in 3GPP First one is Sub 6GHz range is called FR1 and millimeter wave range is called FR2 Already i have discussed in last slide some subcarrier spacing that means 15 KHz and 30KHz which is only used in sub 6GHz That means in FR1 and some subcarrier spacing like..120 KHz can be used in mmwave range That means for FR2 and some subcarrier spacing like 60 KHz ….can be used for both sub 6 GHz and mmwave range 60 GHZ will use for both FR1 and FR2 That means 15 and 30 KHz will use for FR1 and 120 KHz will use as millimeter wave 120 KHz will use for millimeter and 60 KHz will use for both sub 6GHz and millimeter Here if we talk about channel bandwidth…then it is calculated on the basis of number of RB, number of subcarrier, subcarrier spacing and guard band If we talk about 60MHz then it is divided in some part Total 60MHz… where some part is for transmission bandwidth where all the data is transmitted and some part will use as guard band in lte we know that..in 20 MHz Total number of Resource block is 100 Resource block for 20MHz but in 5G total number of subcarrier spacing is …. 15 KHz 30 KHz 60KHz and 120 KHz…like that but in LTE, Only one sub-carrier spacing was used it is 15 KHz in LTE , Total 100 RB is used for 20MHz For 10 MHz, Total number of RB is 50 but in 5G, for different sub carrier spacing like 15 30 60….respectively different RB is used… Here we can see for 5MHz…no of RB is 25 25 Resource block …..25 RB is used and for 20 MHz…total number of RB is 106 resource block Now if we talk about 60 KHz sub-carrier spacing and their bandwidth is 60MHz then total number of resource block is 79 Resource block if sub-carrier spacing is 15 KHz and bandwidth 20MHz then total resouce block is 106 and…. and…if subcarrier spacing is 60 KHz and bandwidth is 60MHz…then total number of resource block is 79 This is chart as per 3GPP If we will talk about guard band This is also calculated and defined as per 3GPP There is different type of subcarrier spacing like 15 30 60 KHz…. For different bandwidth size of guard band is different suppose that if we talk about sub-carrier spacing is 60KHz and bandwidth is 60MHz Then guard band size will be1530KHz Here we can see the example of subcarrier spacing Subcarrier spacing is 60KHz and bandwidth is 60MHz For this number of RB is 79 and nuber of subcarrier is 12 number of subcarrier is same for all subcarrier spacing For all type of subcarrier spacing like 15 30 60 Khz Their number of subcarrier is same, That is 12 so here we can see for 60 KHz and 60 MHz is…79*12*60…That means 56880 KHz That means approx 56.9MHz If we talk about guard band then both side guard band is here so for guard band 60 KHz so guard band will be ……..1530 KHz*2 Because guard band is on both side so 1530*2….that means 3060KHz That means 3.06MHz if we add both a+b Then it is approx 59.94MHz….which is close to 60MHz As per previous slide mmwave range have short wave length ie 10 millimeter to 1 millimeter They have high atmospheric attenuation and observed by gases in atmosphere which reduces the range and strength of the waves Rain and humidity can impact performance and reduce signal strength, Due to its short range of about a kilometer, millimeter wave travels by line of sight so its high-frequency wavelengths can be blocked by physical objects like buildings and trees. Possible approach to solving the blockage effect is through a higher density infra-structure or relay relay is like a repeter The BSs and relays are densely deployed in an outdoor urban area for mmWave communications Basically transmitter is transmitting beam toward the destination user but it is blocked by some cluster or building In this situation transmitter will look for near by base station or relay for a user Which can have LOS link That means line of sight link with destination user that means transmitter or macro cell is transmitting something in beam form but it blocking due to building or cluster In this situation macro cell check…. any small cell or relay is available near to user Where Line of sight can be establish with user Then Transmitter transmit beam toward small cell or relay If i talk about over all frequency design Here lower frequency band and higher frequency band..both is involved Lower frequency band range is higher so mostly it will use for macro cell and higher frequency range is for small area so it will use for small cell As example if we are using 3GHz and 60 GHz freq In that situation 3GHz freq cellular will use in wide area for Macro cell to provide blanket coverage and mobility While Higher freq like…60GHz such as millimeter wave …band will be used in small area for small cell to provide higher capacity Here concept is clear if low freq then it will cover the large area and if high freq then it will cover low area control plane (C-plane) and user data plane (U-plane) of small cells are separated Here Control information is control by Macro cell because Macro cell is using Low freq then it will use higher range will use and for data transmission…it will use high freq or mmwave freq will use….. because its range is small area but capacity is high so small cell will use full freq bandwidth for user plane Now Massive MIMO First question comes…..Why Massive MIMO??? 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