Engineering Miracles for Scientific Discoveries with the James Webb Space Telescope
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WELCOME TO THE FIRST LECTURE OF OUR 2018 SEASON OF EXPLORING SPACE. I’M DAVID, SENIOR CURATOR OF THE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMER HERE AT THE MUSEUM. ON BEHALF OF CHRISTOPHER BROWN, OUR DEPUTY DIRECTOR, WHO IS NEWLY INSTALLED AS OUR INTERIM ACTING DIRECTOR SUCCEEDING JACK DAILY, WHO RETIRED JUST LAST WEEK. AFTER 18 YEARS OF SERVICE AS DIRECTOR I WANT TO WELCOME YOU HERE THIS EVENING. FIRST ABOVE ALL I WANT TO ACKNOWLEDGE AND THANK THOSE WHO MADE THIS LECTURE SERIES POSSIBLE OVER THE PAST YEARS. I ESPECIALLY WANT TO SHOUT OUT THEIR REPRESENTATIVES HERE TONIGHT. FROM ROCKADINE, AND FROM UNITED LAUNCH ALLIANCE. THANK YOU. [APPLAUSE] THIS YEAR’S THEME FOR ALL FOUR OF THE EXPLORING SPACE LECTURES, AS WELL AS THE FIFTH LECTURE IN THE SPACE SCIENCES THIS SWING, THE JOHN BECALL DISTINGUISHED LECTURE IN MARCH, THE THEME IS “MEET HUBBLE’S SUCCESSOR: THE JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE.” HERE AT NASA WE HAVE BEEN EAGERLY AWAITING THE LAUNCH OF JWST, THE JAMES WEBB NOW SCHEDULED FOR THE SPRING OF 2019. OVER THE PAST SEVERAL DECADES THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND OTHER GREAT OBSERVATORIES ON THE GROUND AND IN SPACE, LIKE THE COMPTON, SPITZER, CHANDRA AND THE EXPLORING, ESPECIALLY THE COBY, HAS GIVEN US A WHOLLY KNEW VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE. BUT IT’S A GLIMPSE. HOW IT STARTED WE HAVE A GLIMPSE. HOW IT MIGHT END WE HAVE GLIMPSED. THIS NEW VIEW HAS RAISED MANY NEW QUESTIONS THAT WE HOPE THAT JWST WILL ANSWER. IT CERTAINLY HAS BEEN DESIGNED TO DO SO. OUR SERIES THIS YEAR IS DEVOTED TO ARTICULATED THOSE QUESTIONS, AND MEETING THE TELESCOPE THAT WAS BUILT TO ANSWER THEM. DR. JOHN MATHER IS VERY WELL-KNOWN TO ALL OF US HERE AT NASA AND AROUND THE WORLD. HE’S BEEN FOR SOME YEARS SENIOR ASTRO PHYSICIST AT GODDARD FLIGHT CENTER AND NOW PROJECT MANAGER FOR THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE. DR. MATHER’S RESEARCH FOCUSES ON INFRARED ASTRONOMY AND COSMOLOGY. DR. MATHER LED THE PROPOSAL EFFORTS TO WHAT BECAME COBY, THE COSMIC BACKGROUND EXPLORER, WHICH LAUNCHED IN NOVEMBER 1989 ON A DELTA 5,000 LAUNCH VEHICLE. DR. MATHER BEGAN WORK AT GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER IN A PROJECT THAT LED TO COBE AS A STUDY SCIENTIST AND THEN BECAME PROJECT SCIENTIST AND THEN PRINCIPLE FOR THE INSTRUMENTS THAT IS ON COBE AND ANOTHER SELFLESS PLUG, WE ALSO HAVE A MODEL UP ON DISPLAY OF THE EXPLORE THE UNIVERSE GALLERY. AND HE’S BEEN LEADER OF MANY, MANY SCIENCE TEAMS REPRESENTING SCIENTIFIC INTERESTS, NOT ONLY TO OTHER SCIENTISTS BUT TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT, AND NASA AND THE INDUSTRY. HE SERVED ON ADVISORY AND WORKING GROUPS FOR THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES FOR NASA AND THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, AND VERY NOTABLY HAS BEEN VERY ACTIVE FOSTERING FUTURE GENERATIONS OF SCIENTISTS THROUGH HIS EFFORTS FOR THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF FUTURE SCIENTISTS AND TECHNOLOGISTS. IN 1991, DR. MATHER WAS PRESENTED WITH THE SMITHSONIAN NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM TROPHY, OUR HIGHEST HONOR. HE SHARED THE TROPHY FOR CURRENT ACHIEVEMENT WITH THE COBE TEAM. IN 2006, HE–BECAUSE OF THAT PRIZE THAT WE GAVE HIM, OF COURSE–HE RECEIVED THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR PHYSICS ALONG WITH DR. GEORGE S. THE NATURE AND IRREGULARITIES IN COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION, THIS IS THE FIRST TIME IT BECAME A THING THAT YOU COULD IMAGINE. THAT IS USING COBE, DR. MATHER AND DR. SMOOT DISCOVERED, I QUOTE, THE BASIC FORM OF THE COSMIC MICRO RADIATION AS WELL AS SMALL RADIATIONS. THEY WORKED TO CONFIRM THE BIG BANG AND ARTICULATED EARLY REMNANTS OF ITS STRUCTURE AND CHARACTER. IN 2007, THESE ARE THE TIMES WHEN HE HAS BEEN GRACING THIS STAGE, DR. MATHER GENEROUSLY DONATED A REPLICA OF HIS NOBEL PRIZE TO THE MUSEUM. THE NOBEL FOUNDATION MEANT THREE MEDALS FOR EACH LAUREATE. DR. MATHER GAVE US ONE, GAVE NASA ONE, AND HE KEPT THE GOLD ONE. EVEN SO, IT’S MY DISTINCT HONOR AND TOTAL PLEASURE TO INTRODUCE DR. JOHN MATHER. [APPLAUSE] [APPLAUSE]>>WELL, MY GOLLY, AFTER THAT INTRODUCTION I SAY WHAT A LAY ABOUT THAT GUY IS. BUT THERE IS ONE SMALL CORRECTION. I’M NOT A PROJECT MANAGER. I’M A SCIENTIST. AND THE SCIENTISTS ARE VERY APPRECIATIVE FOR THE PROJECT MANAGERS BECAUSE THEY HAVE A SKILL THAT I DON’T HAVE. THEY CAN MAKE THINGS HAPPEN WITH HUGE TEAMS. SO WHAT I HAVE TO SHOW YOU, AND WHAT WE’VE LEARNED AT THE COBE SATELLITE, IT WAS ALL BECAUSE OF MANAGERS, ENGINEERING TEAMS AND TECHNICIANS THAT TOOK IDEAS AND MADE THEM REAL. BUILDING SOMETHING THAT WAS NEVER BUILT BEFORE AND DISCOVERING SOMETHING THAT WAS NEVER KNOWN BEFORE. TODAY, WE’RE RIDING ON AN IMMENSE WAVE OF DISCOVERY. AN INCREDIBLE HUMAN SOCIETY THAT WE’RE ALL PART OF CAN DO ANYTHING WE WANT. IT MAY TAKE A WHILE BUT WE GET THERE. WE PUT IN HUGE EFFORTS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AND WE’RE ONLY HELD BACK BY OUR IMAGINATION AND LAWS OF NATURE. IF YOU CAN IMAGINE IT, YOU CAN BUILD IT–ALMOST. IT’S NOT IMPOSSIBLE. SOMEBODY WILL TRY IT. WE MIGHT AS WELL BE THE ONES. SO THANKS FOR COMING TO PARTICIPATE IN THE STORY THAT I HAVE TO TELL YOU ABOUT THIS GRAND VISION. IN 1954 I WAS EIGHT YEARS OLD, AND MARS WAS VERY CLOSE. WE SAW THE PLANETARY SHOW AT THE MUSEUM IN NEW YORK CITY, THE HIDDEN PLANETARIUM. BEFORE THIS ONE THAT WE’RE IN TODAY EXISTED. MY DAD BOUGHT A TELESCOPE, IT WAS ABOUT THAT BIG AROUND, A LITTLE BIT BIGGER THAN WHAT GALILEO HAD, AND IT WASN’T ENOUGH. I’VE BEEN WAITING ALL MY LIFE FOR A BETTER ONE, AND WE’RE WAITING FOR BETTER ONES AND WE’RE GETTING THEM. YOU NEED TO KNOW THAT THE GREAT TELESCOPE WAS THE BIGGEST ONE THAT WE WOULD EVER HAVE. YOU COULD NOT MAKE A BIGGER PIECE OF GLASS, AND IT WASN’T WORTH IT ANY WAY BECAUSE THE ATMOSPHERE WAS TOO JUMPY AND IT WOULD MAKE DISTORTED IMAGES. BUT THOSE HAVE BEEN BEATEN. WE KNOW HOW TO BEAT THAT. IN THOSE DAYS IT WAS BEFORE THE SPACE AGE. BUT IT WAS DURING THE COLD WAR WHEN CHILDREN LIKE ME WERE TAUGHT TO HIDE FROM NUCLEAR BOMBSLY STUDYING UNDER THE SCHOOL DESK. EVEN THE KIDS COULD TELL THAT THAT WASN’T GOING TO WORK. BUT THE SPACE AGE SHORTLY AFTER THAT STARTED. FIVE SATELLITES WERE BUILT. PRESIDENT KENNEDY SAID THAT WE WERE GOING TO THE MOON, NOT BECAUSE IT WAS EASY, BUT BECAUSE IT WAS HARD. AND THAT WE WOULD DO THAT AND THE OTHER THINGS. HE PROMISED WE WOULD DO MANY, MANY THINGS. AND NOT JUST THAT ONE. AND THIS WAS BEFORE THE INFORMATION CAME WITH BILLION OF CUSTOMERS ASKING MILLIONS OF ENGINEERS TO BUILD WHATEVER YOU WANT. WE’RE STILL RIDING THAT WAVE, WE’RE NOT NEAR THE END OF IT, AND WE’RE NOT YET TO THE GALACTIC INFORMATION. WE READ ABOUT THE GALACTIC CIVILIZATIONS THAT WOULD PRESERVE CIVILIZATION AFTER THE GALACTIC CIVILIZATION WOULD CRASH BECAUSE IT WAS CORRUPT. SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WERE CALLED UPON TO HELP US OUT THROUGH HISTORY. SO BILL GATES SAYS ENGINEERING WILL BE THE SOLUTION TO A LOT OF OUR PROBLEMS. I THINK HE’S RIGHT. I DON’T THINK WE’LL RUN OUT OF NEED OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ANY TIME IN OUR HISTORY AND THAT HISTORY WILL BE VERY LONG, INDEED. TODAY I’LL SHOW YOU A SMALL SLICE OF THAT VISION, A SMALL PIECE OF THE GREAT JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE. IT IS NAMED FOR THE MAN WHO WENT TO PRESIDENT KENNEDY WITH A PLAN FOR THE APOLLO PROGRAM. HE GOT THERE, MADE IT HAPPEN. EIGHT YEARS AFTER THE SPEECH ANNOUNCING IT WAS DONE, WE SENT PEOPLE AND THEY PUT THEIR FEET ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. CAN YOU IMAGINE THAT? SO WE PROVED THAT WE CAN DO THINGS WHEN WE HAVE THE SUPPORT OF THE PEOPLE. AND THE RIGHT MINDSET. WE DID, AND WE STILL DO. SO NOW I WANT TO SHOW YOU THE TELESCOPE ITSELF. I’LL TALK ABOUT WHY IT’S IMPORTANT SCIENTIFICALLY, AND A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THE ENGINEERING BEHIND IT, AND A HINT OF THE SCIENCE THAT WE HOPE TO DO WITH IT. THE FUTURE OF LECTURES IN THIS SERIES WILL TELL YOU MUCH MORE ABOUT THAT. AT ANY RATE, HERE IS A PICTURE OF THE OBSERVATORY ON THE SCREEN. I DON’T KNOW IF MY POINTER WILL GO THERE. DO YOU SEE MY POINTER THERE? I GOT A POINTER INSTEAD OF A LASER POINTER. WHAT YOU SEE IN THE MIDDLE IS THIS GIGANTIC MIRROR. IT IS 26.5 METERS ACROSS. IS IT OKAY IF I USE METRIC UNITS TONIGHT? FOR THOSE OF US IN THE ENGLISH UNITS THAT’S 21 FEET. IT’S BIGGER THAN WHAT YOU SEE THERE ON THE SCREEN. IT IS PROTECTED BY A BIG UMBRELLA, A SUN SHIELD WE CALL IT WHICH IS AS BIG AS A TENNIS COURT. AS A JOINT PROJECT OF NASA ALONG WITH THE EUROPEAN AND CANADIAN SPACE AGENCIES IT’S AN>>THE MOST DIFFICULT ONE IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FOR SCIENCE. IT’S NOT AS DIFFICULT AS THE A–APOLLO PROGRAM. SO TO START WITH SOME OF THE BIG QUESTIONS IN FRONT OF IT, SOME PEOPLE ASKED THESE THINGS. HOW DID WE GET HERE. QUANTUM MECHANICS, WE KNOW IT RUNS THE PROPERTIES OF EVERYTHING. WE KNOW THAT THE UNIVERSE STARTED EXPANDING, THAT IT WAS FLUID AND HOT WHEN IT WAS YOUNG. THEY WERE STABLE IN A WHOLE HOST OF DIFFERENT WAYS AND COMPLEXITY CAN BUILD NATURALLY. IT’S A NATURAL THING FOR COMPLEXITY TO GROW HERE. THE UNIVERSITY–IT IS VERY OLD, 13.8 BILLION YEARS OLD. WHICH MEANS THERE HAVE BEEN PLENTY OF TIME AND PLENTY OF CHANCES FOR THE UNIVERSE TO DO THINGS THAT ARE VERY IMPROBABLE. THERE ARE NOT MANY PLACES LIKE OURS. WE MAY BE THE ONLY ONE, MAYBE NOT, BUT AT ANY RATE, EACH ONE OF US ARE QUITE UNIQUE.>>WE GET INDIVIDUALITY. WE GET TO BLAME OUR PARENTS FOR ALL OF OUR TROUBLES, AND WE CAN SAY THAT WE HAVE PROBABLY EVOLVED, WHICH I’M HERE AS A SURVIVOR OF THE LUCKY. DARWIN SAID THE SURVIVOR OF THE FITTEST, AND SINCE WE’RE HERE WE THINK WE’RE THE FITTEST, BUT THAT’S NOT VERY GOOD LOGIC. PERHAPS OUR ANCESTOR POPULATION VERY NEARLY PERISHED, THEY WERE DOWN TO A FEW HUNDRED INDIVIDUALS. WE’RE HERE BECAUSE THEY WERE VERY LUCKY. WE HAVE THE ENGINEERING FEEDBACK LOOPS AND WE’RE STILL TRYING TO UNDERSTAND HOW THAT WORKS. THE REST OF IT HAS BEEN CHANGED OUT AND THEY STILL THINK I’M ME. THERE IS A LOT OF MYSTERIES TO THINK ABOUT, AND I WANT TO TELL YOU THAT THERE IS MORE SCIENCE TO GO. SO ASTRONOMERS LOOK BACK IN TIME. EVERYBODY KNOWS THIS. I LIKE TO DRAW THIS PICTURE BECAUSE IT’S MY OWN HAND-DRAWN PICTURE. IT SHOWS YOU THAT YOU CAN BACK AT TIME AND LOOK AT THINGS THAT ARE FAR AWAY. WE KNOW THAT THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS ONE LIGHT YEAR PER YEAR BY DEFINITION. WE KNOW HOW FAR BACK WE’RE LOOKING. WE DRAW TRIANGLES. LIKE YOU WERE SUPPOSED TO LEARN IN HIGH SCHOOL. AND IT’S NOT THAT HARD. IF YOU NOTE TWO ANGLES AND ONE SIDE OF A TRIANGLE YOU CAN CONTEMPLATE THE WHOLE SHAPE OF THE TRIANGLE. THAT’S SURVEYING. THE OTHER METHOD WE USE, IF WE CAN’T USE THE SURVEYING METHOD, WE’LL USE THE STARS OUT THERE, AND IF I CAN CONVINCE YOU THAT THE TWO CANDLES THAT I DREW IN THE PICTURE ARE IDENTICAL, THEN WE CAN GET THE RELATIVE DISTANCE. THAT HAS WORKED PRETTY WELL. HARD WORK BUT STANDARD PRACTICE. THE OTHER THING WE NEED TO DO IS HOW FAST ARE THINGS MOVING, TOWARD US OR AWAY FROM US, AND WE USE THE COLOR OF LIGHT TO MEASURE THIS. IF YOU SPREAD OUT THE LIGHT OF THE FIREWORKS DISPLAY THAT YOU SEE JULY FOURTH, YOU SEE EACH OF THE COLORS COME FROM A DIFFERENT CHEMICAL ELEMENT. WE CAN SEE THE LIGHT OF THE SUN AS DARK MARKS ACROSS THE RAINBOW. OR SOMETIMES THEY SHINE OUT. AWAY FROM THIS METHOD WE CAN FIND OUT WHAT IS IN THE SUN. HOW HOT THE SUN IS, HOW IT MOVES, AND WE CAN TELL IF PROJECT IS COMING TOWARDS US AND AWAY FROM US. IF THEY HAVE SHIFTED, THE LONGER AND SHORTER WAVELENGTHS. THIS IS CALLED THE UPPER SHIFT. WE’VE KNOWN ABOUT IT SINCE THE 19TH CENTURY. EDWIN HUBBLE WAS THE FIRST ONE TO SHOW THE GRAFT. SO 1929 HE MEASURED OR TABULATED THE AN I COUPLE LATED INFORMATION OF HOW FAR AWAY THE GALAXY AND HOW QUICKLY IT IS GOING. THIS GRAPH SHOWS THE DISTONIGHT GALAXIES ARE RUSH AWAY FROM US. AND YOU CAN GET THE AGE OF THE UNIVERSE. IT’S SIMPLE. IT’S NOT SUCH A GREAT MYSTERY. BUT IT WAS FOUND OUT IN 1929. AND SO WE FORGET IT WAS SO LONG AGO, AND NOW WE THINK IT’S A BIG MYSTERY. HE DID GET THE WRONG ANSWER FOR THE AGE. MEASURING THAT DISTANCE IS PRETTY HARD, AND THE BIGGEST PROBLEM THAT HE HAD WAS THE STANDARD CANDLES THAT THEY WERE USING CLOSE BY AND FAR AWAY, THEY WERE ACTUALLY DIFFERENT KINDS. HE DIDN’T KNOW THAT, BUT WE TOOK A LONG TIME TO FIND OUT. NOW WE KNOW, NOW WE ARGUE ABOUT LINE WITHIN A PERCENT OR TWO. SO WE’VE MADE A LOT OF PROGRESS. DAVID MENTIONED IN THE INTRODUCTION THAT WE NEED A SATELLITE TO MEASURE THE BIG BANK RADIATION. HERE IT IS, IT WAS MADE BASED ON MY THESIS PROJECT AND MANY IDEAS TO MEASURE THE HEAT OF THE BIG BANG. SO WE MEASURED IT. AND IT CAME OUT RIGHT. I’M GOING TO ZIP OVER THE DETAILS AND JUST SUMMARIZE IT AND TELL YOU ABOUT THE UNIVERSE. THE EARLY UNIVERSE WAS VERY HOT AND VERY COMPRESS CANNED. PROBABLY HAD SOME CENTER. BUT WE HAVEN’T FOUND A SIGN OF ONE AND THERE WAS NO SIGN OF AN EDGE. YOU CAN’T SEE TO THE EDGE BECAUSE WE’VE NOT HAD THAT AMOUNT OF TIME. YOU CAN SEE 13.8 BILLION LIGHT YEARS AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT. SO WE HAVE THE IMAGINATION THAT SAYS IT’S AN UNIVERSE SPENDING INTO ITSELF. THERE IS NOT ANOTHER UNIVERSE FOR IT TO GO INTO. AND THERE IS NOT A FIRST MOMENT. JUST IMAGINE RUNNING THE EXTENSION MOVIE BACKWARDS. WE SEE THE GALAXIES RUNNING APART. IMAGINE THEY START TO RUSH TOWARDS EACH OTHER INSTEAD. WHEN THEY CRASH INTO EACH OTHER, THEY’RE HOT AND SO THEY RUN INTO PARTICLES, AND THEY GET HOTTER AND HOTTER AND DENSER AND DENSER, BUT YOU NEVER GET ALL THE WAY TO TIME ZERO. YOU CANNOT SAY THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS CREATED. THERE WAS A NOT A FIRST MOMENT IN WHICH IT APPEARS. IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN HERE. THIS IS A CURIOSITY OF MATHEMATICS, BUT A LOT OF PEOPLE CALL IT THE INSTANT OF CREATION, IT’S NOT, REALLY. IT’S ALSO NOT A BIG FIRECRACKER WELL,S JUST THE WRONG PICTURE. IF YOU THINK OF A FIRECRACKER, YOU THINK OF LITTLE THINGS OF A PLACE AND A TIME. THE INFY MATE UNIVERSE EXPANDING INTO ITSELF. ALSO THERE IS NO END. BUT I CANNOT PROVE THAT TO YOU. THAT WAS THE DEMONSTRATION THAT IS AS WE CLAIM. WE’VE GOT A LOT OF EVIDENCE FOR IT NOW. WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO ABOUT THAT, EVEN BEFORE THE HUBBLE TELESCOPE WAS LAUNCHED WE WERE THINKING ABOUT WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO NEXT AFTER THAT. ONE OF MY LEAGUES HERE,–ONE OF MY COLLEAGUES HERE IN THE FRONT ROW, WHAT ARE WE GOING TO BUILD AFTER HUBBLE. WHAT DO WE NOT KNOW, AND HOW DO WE NOT KNOW IT. COULD WE KNOW IT WITH A BIGGER AND BETTER TELESCOPE? THE ANSWER IS YES. THEY WORKED OUT SOME OF THE POSSIBILITIES AND SOME OF THEM LOOK LIKE WHAT WE’RE ACTUALLY BUILDING. MORE CONFERENCES WERE HELD, AND EVERY TEN YEARS ASTRONOMERS HAVE A FESTIVAL WHERE WE WRITE A BOOK ABOUT WHAT WHAT IS OUR TOP PRIORITY. IN 1990 THEY DIDN’T COME OUT TO SAY THAT THEY NEEDED THIS TELESCOPE THAT WE’RE BUILDING, BUT THE SUB COMMITTEE SAID SO. IN 1990, AFTER THE SATELLITE WAS LAUNCHED WE KNEW WE HAD TO PLAN FOR THE FUTURE, AND SOMETHING TO COME AFTER HUBBLE. HERE IS THE HUBBLE ITSELF. IT IS 27 YEARS OLD, ALMOST 28, CAN YOU IMAGINE THAT, GOING VERY WELL. IT’S BEEN SERVICED FIVE TIMES BY ASTRONAUTS. THEY WENT UP WITH BETTER EQUIPMENT. THIS HUBBLE CONCEPT GOES SO FAR BACK IN TIME THAT IT’S HARD TO IMAGINE HOW PRIMITIVE THE EQUIPMENT MAY HAVE BEEN IF WE WERE STUCK WITH THE OLD STUFF. WE WERE THRILLED THAT YOU COULD DO THAT, AND UPGRADE IT SO MANY TIMES. 1990 WAS LAUNCHED IN APRIL. WE HAD A PROBLEM SHORTLY AFTER THAT. IT WAS NOT IN FOCUS. SO HERE IS THE ASTRONAUTS WORKING WITH THE HUBBLE TELESCOPE. HERE IS A PICTURE OF A GALAXY WE TOOK SHORTLY AFTER THE LAUNCH. BUMMER. NASA HAD A LOT OF JOKES THROWN AT US. BUT WE SAID, AND CONGRESS SAID, PLEASE FIX IT. AND WE DID. SO THIS WAS BRILLIANT AND WONDERFUL, AND IMMEDIATELY TOLD US THE UNIVERSE IS DIFFERENCE FROM WHAT WE THOUGHT.>>THEY WROTE A BOOK THAT SAID PLEASE BUILD US A TELESCOPE BIGGER AND BETTER THAN BEFORE. IF YOU COULD. IT GIVES ME CHILLS TO READ THAT BOOK BECAUSE IT’S SO WELL DONE. COMMITTEES DON’T ALWAYS WRITE GOOD BOOKS, BUT THIS ONE WAS. HERE IS ADAM DREXLER AND DAN GOLDEN. THEY MET. DAN GOLDEN HEARD WHAT HE HAD TO SAY, AND HE GAVE A PLENARY TALK. HE SAID ADAM DREXLER IS HERE. HE WANTS A TELESCOPE THAT GOES TO 0 MICRONS. I SAID WHY ASK FOR A MODEST THING. WHY NOT GO AFTER SIX OR SEVEN METERS. AND IT GOT A STANDING OVATION. IMMEDIATELY AFTER THAT, ASTRONOMERS WANTED TO WORK ON THE NEW PROJECT, SO WE STARTED. SO WE HAD GRAND VISIONS AND WE’RE ABOUT TO GET THERE. WHAT WAS IN THAT LITTLE BOOK? MANY MYSTERIES THAT COULD BECOME DISCOVERIES. WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THE BIG BANG? HOW DO THE FIRST STARS AND FIRST BLACK HOLES AND FIRST GALAXIES GROW? AND WHAT ELSE COULD THERE BE OUT THERE? HOW DO THE GALAXIES GROW? DID THE BLACK HOLE START FIRST AND THE GALAXIES STARTED? OR DID THE GALAXIES MAKE THE BLAME HOLE. WHAT IS THE BLACK MATTER AND BLACK ENERGY ABOUT? BLACK ENERGY HAD ONLY BEEN GUESSED AT. IT HAD NOT BEEN KNOWN ABOUT IN 1995. WHAT HAPPENS TOO THE STARS? THEY BLOW UP. AND THE SUN WILL NOT PLOW UP, BY THE WAY BUT IT WILL CHANGE. PLANETS WE DIDN’T KNOW MUCH ABOUT, EXOPLANETS, THERE ARE MANY OUT THERE. WE WERE ABLE TO TAKE A PICTURE WITH THE HUBBLE SCOPE, AND IT WAS A SURPRISE. YOU MUST BE ABLE TO SEE THEM GROWING WITH THE HUBBLE TELESCOPE. FAR ENOUGH BACK IN SPACE AND FAR ENOUGH BACK IN TIME. WE CAN SEE HOW IT WORKS. THE PICTURE HERE SHOWS THAT’S NOT TRUE. THERE ARE A LOT OF RED SPECS ON THERE THAT SAYS, GUESS WHAT, THE FIRST GALAXIES WERE TOO RED TO GET IN THE HUBBLE WAVELENGTH RANGE, AND THEY WERE TOO FAINT EVEN IF THE PUBLIC COULD COVER IT. SO NASA, BUILD US A BIGGER TELESCOPE TO PICK UP THE INFRARED LIGHT. TWO YEARS LATER WE GOT TO DISCOVER THIS AFFECT. THIS AFFECT IS THAT THE GALAXIES–THEY’RE SUPPOSED TO BE PULLING EACH OTHER TOGETHER BECAUSE OF NEUTRAL GRAVITY. AND THEY’RE ACTUALLY FLYING APART FASTER AND FASTER ALL THE TIME. THIS IS DARK ENERGY. THE PEOPLE WHO FOUND THIS OUT IN 2011 BECN ENORMOUS SURPRISE. IT WAS A LITTLE HARD TO CONVINCE PEOPLE THAT THEY WERE RIGHT. NOW I HAVE A MOVIE TO SHOW YOU. IT’S THE MOST BEAUTIFUL MOVIE I’VE EVER SEEN. NOW WE NEED THE LIGHTS DOWN, AND I’LL SHOW YOU HOW THE GALAXIES MAY HAVE GROWN FROM THE VERY FIRST MOMENT.>>THIS IS PULLING MATERIAL BACK TOGETHER. THE GRAVITY ACTING ON THE LITTLE SEEDS IN THE BIG BANG MATERIAL WERE ABLE TO STOP THE EXPANSION. THEY HAVE SIMULATED THIS IN A BOX OF UNIVERSE THAT THEY’RE ROTATING IN FRONT OF YOUR EYES. AND WITHIN A BILLION YEARS OF WHATEVER STARTED IT GOING, THE STRUCTURE HAD ALREADY APPEARED. THE GALAXIES ARE FORMING. THEY’RE FORMING WITH STRINGS OF MATERIAL. THEY’RE STRETCHED OUT IN A VERY NON-RANDOM FACTION. THEY’RE COMING TOGETHER IN SHEETS. THE COMPUTER IS LINED UP WITH LINE IN SIGHT AND EVERYTHING IS IN ONE PLANE, RIGHT THERE.>>YOU’RE NOT GOING TO BE ABLE TO WAIT FOR BILLIONS OF YEARS TO SEE IF THIS PICTURE IS CORRECT, BUT WE CAN TAKE PICTURES WITH HUBBLE AND THE JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE AND SEE IF THE PICTURES MATCH UP WITH WHAT THIS MOVIE PREDICTS. THIS IS NOT THE MOST CURRENT MOVIE, BUT IT IS THE MOST BEAUTIFUL ONE THAT I’VE SEEN. THE UNIVERSE IS 9 BILLION YEARS OLD. THAT’S WHEN THESE EXPLOSIONS THAT YOU SEE START TO SLOW DOWN. THAT’S A GOOD THING BECAUSE THAT’S WHEN THE SOLAR SYSTEM IS BEING BORN, AND IT WOULD BE HARD TO START A SOLAR SYSTEM NEXT TO AN EXPLOSION LIKE THAT. THIS IS WHEN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM SPEEDS UP, AND THE BLACK HOLES COME FROM THE EXPLODED STARS. IS THIS MOVIE TRUE? YOU HAVE TO TAKE A LOT OF PICTURES AND REASON THROUGH THE EVIDENCE. EVENTUALLY REVEAL AND TELL YOU WHAT THE MATTER IS IN THIS MOVIE AND DOES IT TURN OUT RIGHT IN THE END? IT’S PRETTY DARN GOOD. BY THE WAY, IT TOOK MODERN TECHNOLOGY TO EVEN MAKE THE MOVIE. I THINK WHAT WE HAVE COMING HERE NEXT IS THE PEOPLE WHO MADE IT. AND THEY NEEDED MILLIONS AND MILLIONS OF CTU HOURS AND THE BEST COMPUTERS YOU COULD POSSIBLY FIND. WE COULDN’T HAVE DONE THAT. A FEW YEARS BACK. WHY DO WE NEED BIG COMPUTERS LIKE THAT? OTHER BIG GOVERNMENT AGENCIES NEED THEM, AND SO DO YOU. THE WHIRLPOOL NEBRASKA LA. ANOTHER BEAUTIFUL PICTURE, THIS WAS TAKEN NOT ONLY WITH THE HUBBLE, BUT ALSO THE OBSERVATORY OF THE EXPLODED STAR NEBULA. WE KNOW NOW THAT IT WOULD YOU UP IN 1855. THAT’S PART OF WHERE OUR ATOMS COME FROM. A LOT OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS OF LIFE WAS PRODUCED AND RELEASED TO BE RECYCLED FROM THIS STAR. WE’RE BREATHING DINOSAUR BREATH, TOO. NOW WE GET TO THE TELESCOPE OF MY GREAT JOY. THIS IS THE JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE. IT’S NAMED AFTER THE MAN, NOT THE CURRENT POLITICIAN BUT THE MAN. THIS IS THE EUROPEAN SPACATION SPACEAGENCY. THIS IS SO HUGE THAT IT HAS TO BE HELD UP FOR A LAUNCH. IT’S ALL THE ARIANE 5. A LITTLE BIT OF THE TELESCOPE DESIGN. IT STARTS OFF WITH A GRAIN OF TELESCOPE AND IMPROVED BY HAVING THE THIRD MIRROR. THIS IS A TELESCOPE MADE OUT OF 18 PIECES. MADE OUT OF GOLD AND POLISHED TO THE PERFECTION THAT THEY NEED AT OPERATING TEMPERATURE. THE MIRRORS ARE TWO MILLIMETERS THICK. AND IT’S A COLD CHALLENGE. WHEN WE SAID WE WERE GOING TO DO THAT, PEOPLE LAUGHED AT ME FOR MANY YEARS, BUT WE DID IT. WE HAVE A PACKAGE OF FOUR DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTATION. WE’RE GOING TO STRETCH OUT THE LIGHT OF DIFFERENT OBJECTS INTO THE COLORS SO WE CAN ANALYZE WHAT IS INSIDE AND HOW THEY’RE MOVING. THIS IS FOR THE TECHNICAL FOLKS. IT COVERS ALL THE WAVELENGTHS FROM .6 MICRONS, OUT TO 28 MICRONS WAVELENGTH, YOUR FRIENDLY RATTLE SNAKE WOULD BE ABLE TO PICK IT UP IF IT WAS BRIGHT. VERY POWERFUL. WHATEVER ASTRONOMY YOU WOULD LIKE TO DO, YOU CAN USE THIS COMMITMENT AND WE COULD DO IT FOR YOU IF IT COVERS THIS MUCH RANGE. THE ASTRONOMERS ARE NOW WRITING PROPOSALS OF HOW TO USE THIS TELESCOPE, AND IT’S DUE IN APRIL. WE’LL BE ABLE TO TELL YOU THE BASIC PLAN OF MOST OF THE THINGS WE’RE GOING TO DO IN ITS FIRST YEAR OF OPERATIONS. I WANT TO SHOW YOU ROUGHLY WHAT HAPPENS TO THE TELESCOPE HARDWARE. SO HERE’S THE ROAD MAP TO GET THE TELESCOPE UP. WE START BY PUTTING THE TELESCOPE TOGETHER OUT AT GODDARD. A FEW OF YOU MAY HAVE SEEN IT. THEN WE SHOOK IT TRY TO SEE HOW CLOSE IT WAS TO BREAKING BEFORE WE LAUNCH IT. AND IT PASSED ALL THAT. AND THIS LITTLE PICTURE SHOWS YOU THAT THE TELESCOPE IN A CLEAN DEBT TENT ON TOP OF A VIBRATOR. WE PUT IT IN A GIANT MAILBOX AND SEND IT AROUND THE BELTWAY, AND PUT IT IN, AND THE TELESCOPE IN ITS TRUCK. AND THE GIANT AIRCRAFT. FLEW IT TO HOUSTON AND UNLOADED IT THERE, AND PUT IT BACK IN THE TANK THERE. WE PUT IT BACK IN THE AIRPLANE, AND JUST FLEW IT BACK TO CALIFORNIA, WHERE THEY HAVE THE FACILITIES AND IT IS ABOUT TO GO THROUGH THE NEXT CHANGE WHERE WE MERGE IT WITH THE ONE PART AND WE CONTINUE TESTING IT AND MAKE SURE THAT IT UNFOLDS AND FOLDS UP AGAIN. THEN WE PUT IT IN AN SLIGHTLY EXPANDED VERSION OF A MAILBOX. PUT IT ON THE BOAT. SEND IT THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL. PUT IT ON A ROCKET. PUSH A BUTTON AND IT GOES UP IN SPACE. IT GOES WAY OUT THERE, 1.5 MILLION KILOMETERS. IN ENGLISH, A MILLION MILES, AND IT UNFOLDS UP THERE AND THEN IT’S AT WORK. WE’RE NOT QUITE ALL THE WAY THERE. ABOUT A YEAR AND A HALF’S WORK IS LEFT. HERE IS A MOVIE TAKEN OF THE TELESCOPE IN ITS CLEAN ROOM AT GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER. IT SHOWS THE ROBOT PUTTING THE MIRRORS ON. HERE WE HAVE THE TELESCOPE IN ITS PLASTIC TENT TO PUT IT ON TOP OF THE SHAKERS TO SEE IF IT WILL SURVIVE THE LAUNCH. WE’LL PUT IT IN THE MAILBOX. THE SHIPPING CONTAINER. PUSHING IT OUT THROUGH THE DOOR. BUT GETTING IT READY TO GO IN THE VACUUM TANK. THAT’S THE DOOR OF THE VACUUM TANK. HERE THE TRUCK DRIVING DOWN THE HIGHWAY WE SLOWLY. THERE IT IS. YOU CAN SEE THE SNUG FIT IN THE AIRCRAFT. IT HAS ABOUT AN INCH CLEARANCE INSIDE THE AIRPLANE. THEN IN HOUSTON, THE TRUCK DRIVES OUT. HERE HE COMES. THEY’LL MOVE THE TRAFFIC LIGHTS IN A FEW PLACES TO GET UNDER THEM. THAT JUST GIVES YOU A HINT OF THE CIVIL ENGINEERING THAT IT TAKES TO MOVE SOMETHING THIS MASSIVE AND THIS IMPORTANT AROUND THE WORLD. SO THERE IS THE DOOR OF THE BIG VACUUM TANK IN TEXAS, WHICH WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT FOR THE APOLLO PROGRAM. THAT’S WHERE THE ASTRONAUTS PRACTICE WALKING ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. SO IN THAT TANK WE HAVE PUT OUR TELESCOPE. WE FOCUSED IT AND MADE SURE THE MIRRORS WOULD MOVE. MADE SURE WE HAVE NOT HAVE THE HUBBLE FOCUS PROBLEM. IT SPENT THREE MONTHS THERE AND IT CAME OUT AND WE WERE HAPPY. IT’S A VERY GOOD TELESCOPE. WE TOOK IT OUT. THERE’S THE DOOR. AND IT COMES OUT ON TOP OF A VERY SHORT RAIL ROAD TRACK AND WE’LL PUT IT BACK ON THE APRIL. THERE’S THE RAILROAD TRACK. THERE IT IS, LOOKING BEAUTIFUL. WHY GOLD? BECAUSE IT’S THE BEST REFLECTER OF INFRARED FLIGHT. THE MATERIAL UNDERNEATH KEEPS ITS SHAPE WHEN IT’S COLD. WE HAVE SHIPPED IT OUT TO CALIFORNIA. IT WILL MEET UP TO THIS PART, WHICH WE HAVE COMPLETED ALMOST AT THE FACILITY. HERE IS A YEAR AND A QUARTER’S WORTH OF HARD WORK CONDENSED INTO A FEW MINUTES. THERE IS A GIGANTIC ROOM. BRING IN THE PARTS. LOTS AND LOTS OF PEOPLE. WE’RE JUST BEGINNING TO PUT TOGETHER THIS SPACECRAFT BUS, THE FRAMEWORK THAT HOLDS UP ALL THE AVIONICS. THIS TAKES A LOT OF PEOPLE A LONG TIME TO DO THIS. WHEN I TALK ABOUT THE ENGINEERING MIRACLES THAT IT TAKES FOR SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY. IT’S NOT JUST ENGINEERING, BUT IT’S A LOT OF PEOPLE WITH HANDS ON THE HARDWARE FOR A LONG TIME. HERE YOU SEE THAT WE’RE BEGINNING TO ASSEMBLE THE FRAMEWORK THAT HOLDS UP THE SUN SHIELD. THAT WAS A SIMULATION THAT THEY PUT ON TOP OF THE TELESCOPE FRAMEWORK ITSELF. I SEE PEOPLE UP ON THESE VERY HIGH LIFTING DEVICES LOOKING DOWN, AND IT’S AN EXTRAORDINARY PROCESS. YOU SEE PEOPLE STRAPPED IN SO THEY CAN’T FALL OFF OR LOSE TOOLS. HERE WE’VE PUTTING TOGETHER THE SUN SHIELD. FIVE LAYERS OF PLASTIC COVERED WITH A METALLIC COATING TO REFLECT THE HEAT OF THE SUN AWAY. GOLLY JEEZ, IS THAT HARD? YES, IT IS. AS FAR AS WE KNOW THERE IS NO OTHER WAY TO GET TO THE SCIENCE THAT WE’RE AFTER. SO IT MAKES ME TIRED JUST TO LOOK AT IT. AND OUR PEOPLE HAVE BEEN THERE WORKING SIX OR SEVEN DAYS A WEEK FOR A LONG TIME TO MAKE THIS HAPPEN. YOU SEE SOME OF THE SUN SHIELD LAYERS HAVE BEEN LIFTED UP SO WE CAN GET AT THEM. THEY HAVE TO BE CAREFULLY FOLDED UP, AND WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY UNFOLD PROPERLY. YOU CAN’T TEST IT IN ZERO GRAVITY IN A VACUUM. SO YOU HAVE TO PRETEND WITH THE THINGS ON THE GROUND AND HOLD UP THE WEIGHT OF THE EQUIPMENT SO YOU CAN TELL. SO THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT IT TAKES TO BUILD A REALLY BIG TELESCOPE IN SPACE. LOTS OF PEOPLE. LOTS OF HARDWARE. LOTS OF EQUIPMENT THAT YOU NEVER THOUGHT YOU WOULD NEED TO MAKE THIS EQUIPMENT. SO AFTER WE FINISH ALL OF THIS, WE WILL THEN TAKE THIS HARDWARE AND PUT IT ON A SHAKER, AND MAKE SURE THAT IT SACRIFICE THE LAUNCH. WE’LL PUT THIS IN A VACUUM TANK AND MAKE SURE THAT IT BEHAVES ITSELF IN A VACUUM. AND WE’LL REHEARSE MORE THAN ONCE FOLLOWING AND–FOLDING AND UNFOLDING IT. GOLLY GEE, THAT’S HARD. THAT’S WHY I SAY THIS IS NOT–THIS TAKES ENORMOUS EFFORT BY A TEAM. YOU HAVE TO BE WELL ORGANIZED, AND IT IS POSSIBLE. IT IS NOT EASY, BUT IT IS POSSIBLE. THEY’RE FINISHING PUTTING TOGETHER THE SUN SHIELD. THERE ARE FIVE LAYERS OF PLASTIC, EACH AS BIG AS A TENNIS COURT. NOW WE’RE GOING TO PULL ON THE TABLES AND TIGHTEN UP THE SHEETS OF PLASTIC SO THEY HAVE THE RIGHT SHAPE. THIS IS WHAT IT WILL LOOK LIKE WHEN IT’S OUT IN OUTER SPACE. BUT YOU WON’T BE ABLE TO SEE IT BECAUSE IT WILL BE IN THE DARK. THIS IS THE THING THAT KEEPS THE TELESCOPE ALWAYS IN THE DARK. THAT’S THE ENGINEERING MIRACLE THAT IS CURRENTLY GOING ON. AND WELCOME BACK TO WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO WITH IT. HERE’S WHERE WE’RE SENDING IT. WE’RE SENDING IT 1.5 KILOMETERS OUT IN SPACE. OVER HERE, THIS IS DEFINITELY NOT TO SCALE. OOPS, DIDN’T MEAN TO DO THAT. IT LOOKS SIMPLER THAN IT IS IN THE MOVIE, AND IT GOES QUICKER THAN IT DOES AS WE ACTUALLY HAVE TWO WEEKS TO MAKE SURE THAT THIS MOVIE WORKS RIGHT. YOU SAY HOW DO YOU KNOW–WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO IF IT DOESN’T WORK RIGHT? WE HAVE MULTIPLE WAYS TO MAKE EVERYTHING HAPPEN. WE HAVE TWO OF EVERYTHING WHERE POSSIBLE AND SENSORS TO TELL US WHETHER THINGS WORK PROPERLY. THERE IT IS, UNFOLDING ITSELF OUT IN OUTER SPACE WITHOUT HUMAN TOUCH BUT WITH LOTS OF HUMAN TAKEN. ATTENTION. WE’RE WATCHING IT OUT HERE WITH OUR EQUIPMENT. SO WHEN WE HIRED THE COMPANY TO DO THIS, THEY SAID THIS IS NOT THE MOST COMPLICATED THING THEY’VE EVER DONE IN SPACE. I THINK IT’S RIGHT UP THERE IN THE TOP FEW. THERE IT IS. IT’S NOT FOCUSED YET. IT’S NOT EVEN SET UP YET. WE HAVE TO WAIT FOR IT TO COOL DOWN TO THE RIGHT TEMPERATURE. TURN ON THE CAMERAS TO TAKE THE PICTURES AND DO EVERYTHING THAT WE’VE REHEARSED TO GET IT TO FOCUS UP. WE KNOW THAT IT CAN. THERE IT IS. AFTER A FEW WEEKS IN OUTER SPACE IT WILL BE LIKE THIS. SO JUST A FEW LITTLE WORDS OF WHAT WE’RE GOING TO DO WITH IT. THIS IS EXTRAORDINARY. IF YOU WERE A BUMBLE WE THE DISTANCE OF THE MOON WELD BE ABLE TO SEE YOU. WE’D BE ABLE TO SEE BOTH IN SUNLIGHT AND HEAT AS IF YOU’RE A BUMBLEBEE OUT THERE. WE DO HAVE TO SQUINT FOR MARS BECAUSE IT’S SO DARN BRIGHT. WHATEVER YOU WANT TO KNOW ABOUT THE SOLAR SYSTEMS FROM THE MARS ON, WE’LL WORK ON IT. WE’LL TAKE PICTURES LIKE THIS, ONLY DIFFERENT. THIS IS ONE OF OUR MOST BEAUTIFUL NASA PICTURES TAKEN WITH HUBBLE. THIS IS WHERE STARS ARE BEING BORN TODAY, AND GOLLY, ISN’T IT BEAUTIFUL, AND GOLLY, YOU CAN’T SEE INSIDE THAT CLOUD. WOULDN’T WE LIKE TO SEE INSIDE THE CLOUD. YES, YOU CAN, IF YOU USE INFRARED LIGHT. HUBBLE HAS SOME CAPABILITIES, AND YOU CAN SEE PARTWAY INTO THE CLOUDS AND YOU CAN ALSO SEE THERE WERE A LOT OF STARS HIDING BEHIND THAT BEAUTIFUL CLOUD. THIS OPENS UP A NEW TERRITORY FOR ASTRONOMERS. IT’S NOT JUST FOR COSMOLOGY TO LOOK AT SPACE AND TIME, BUT TO SEE HOW STARS LIKE THE SUN ARE BEING BORN TODAY. WE’LL LOOK AT THINGS IN THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM. THIS IS A PLACE OF GREAT SUPER, THIS IS A SATELLITE DISCOVERED BY GALILEO. THIS IS CALLED BY A MISSION WE CALLED GALILEO. THIS SHOWS AN OCEAN COVERED IN ICE AND WE RECENTLY FOUND THAT THERE IS WATER SPRINTING OUT FROM SOME OF THESE SATELLITES. PEOPLE SAY WOULDN’T THIS BE A GREAT PLACE TO LOOK FOR LIFE. IT’S GOT AN OCEAN AND YOU DON’T EVEN HAVE TO DRILL IN. YOU JUST LAPPED OR FLY THROUGH THE PLUME COMING OUT OF THE GUYSERS AND TAKE A LOOK INTO IT. LOOK AT THE ORGANIC MATERIALS. I THINK IT WOULD TAKE A LITTLE MORE WORK TO SEE IF IT HAS BACTERIA, BUT THIS IS TALK FOR SCIENTISTS AND CONGRESS LIKES IT. WE’LL BE LOOKING FURTHER OUT ALSO. WE KNOW THERE IS ONE VERY POWERFUL WAY TO STUDY A PLANET AS SMALL AS EARTH. YOU CAN FIGURE THIS OUT. SOME OF THE STARLIGHTS IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE PLANET ON ITS WAY TO THE TELESCOPE, WE CAN ANALYZE THAT, BUT WE SPREAD IT OUT TO THE SPECTRUM OF THE ANY ROW AND THE CHEMISTRY AND THE PROPERTIES, WE HAVE ALREADY PRACTICED WITH PLANETS WE’VE SEEN THAT ARE BIG AND BRIGHT, ENOUGH THAT HUBBLE CAN DO ITS TRICK. AND EVEN A SMALL TELESCOPE CAN DO IT. WE’VE BEEN WORKING ON THAT. I’M SURE WE’RE GOING TO DO MORE WITH THE WEBB TELESCOPE. WE’LL BE LOOKING FOR THINGS LIKE THE SYSTEM. THIS SYSTEM WITH SEVEN PLANETS, NOT SO DIFFERENCE FROM THE SIZE OF EARTH, AND THEY’RE EVEN A LITTLE BIT AROUND A SMALL STAR. ABOUT AS BIG AS OUR PLANET JUPITER. THEY ARE ALL CLOSE ENOUGH TO EARTH TO BE INTERESTING. SO WE CERTAINLY DON’T KNOW THAT THEY DO, BUT OBVIOUSLY AN INTERESTING PLACE TO GO LOOKING. SO JUST A FEW MORE SPECULATIONS BEFORE WE WRAP UP. EVERYONE WANTS TO KNOW ARE WE ALONE? THE ANSWER IS WE DON’T KNOW, BUT WE’RE GOING TO WORK ON IT. THE BIG QUESTION NEXT THAT WE CAN WORK ON, WELL, HOW SPECIAL IS EARTH? WE KNOW THAT EARTH IS SPECIAL IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. WE KNOW IT’S THE ONLY PLANET WITH THESE PROPERTIES. IT HAS THE MOON, THE RIGHT TEMPERATURE, IT RECYCLES THE OCEAN AND THE ROCK, THE RIGHT DISTANCE FROM A STAR. AND SO THAT’S INTERESTING. WE WANT TO COMPARE WHAT WE HAVE IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM WITH WHAT IS OUT THERE. HOW DO WE KNOW THAT? WE HAVE BUILT THIS TELESCOPE. WE HAVE MANY SKETCHES OF MEN WITH TELESCOPES BIGGER THAN THIS ONE. BUT THE INFRARED TELESCOPE MAYBE THREE OR FOUR TIMES AS BIG AS THE WEBB TELESCOPE AND CAPABLE OF FINDING LITTLE DOTS ORBITING AS STARS. IN WHICH CASE WE CAN FIND OUT MORE. I THINK WE HAVE TIME FOR QUESTIONS. BUT I WANT TO SAY THAT WE ARE STILL NOT GOING TO HAVE THE GALACTIC CIVILIZATION THAT WE HAVE HEARD ABOUT. WE CANNOT TRAVEL TO THE NEAREST STARS IN PERSON. WE HAVE NOT DISCOVERED MORE FLAGS. I DON’T THINK THEY ARE IN GOOD HINT, SORRY ABOUT THAT. BUT ROBOTS ARE PATIENT, THEY CAN GO. THEY DON’T HAVE TO BRIEF ON THE WAY LIKE WE DO. ASTRONG MEASURES, ON THE OTHER HAND, WE UNDERSTAND AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT. AND WE KNOW YOU HAVE TO THINK ABOUT IT. WE HAVE TO INTERPRET TO FIND OUT. I PROMISE YOU WILL NOT BE DISAPPOINTED. THANKS. [APPLAUSE]>>SO WHAT IS YOUR PLAN?>>WELL, I CAN FIELD QUESTIONS. JOHN WILL REPEAT THE QUESTIONS, IF THAT’S OKAY.>>SURE.>>WE TAKE QUESTIONS. [INAUDIBLE QUESTION]>>HER QUESTION IS ABOUT THE GIANT UMBRELLA. IT’S MADE OF PLASTIC NOT MUCH THICKER THAN YOUR LAUNDRY BAG. SO IT IS FRAGILE, BUT IT IS TOUGH. SO MICRO-METEORITES WILL MAKE HOLES IN THEM, BUT WE DON’T CARE. THERE ARE NOT MANY OF THEM, THEY ARE NOT VERY DEEP.>>AS YOU KNOW WE’RE IN OVER FLOW. AND I’LL TAKE A FEW MORE QUESTIONS, BUT THEN WE WILL TURN IT OVER TO THE OVER FLOW PEOPLE QUESTIONS THERE. [INAUDIBLE QUESTION]>>THE HUBBLE IS 27 YEARS OLD ALMOST 28, AND IT’S NOT WEARING OUT. SO FIVE YEARS MORE IS QUITE POSSIBLE. IT IS STILL REALLY GREAT SCIENCE, SO I DON’T THINK ANYBODY WILL TAKE IT OFF. EVENTUALLY WE HAVE TO DO SOMETHING BECAUSE WE CAN’T LET IT FALL ON MOSCOW. AND THE WEBB TELESCOPE ITS PLANNED LIFE IS AT LEAST TEN YEARS.>>OKAY, IN THE WHITE? [INAUDIBLE QUESTION]>>THE ANSWER IS YES. YOU HAVE TO PHONE UP WITH YOUR URGENT REQUEST. THEN WE SAY WE’LL THINK ABOUT IT. THEN WE MAKE A PLAN AND THEN TALK TO THE SPACECRAFT, SO IT TAKES A DAY OR TWO TO DO THAT. SO PLAN YOUR URGENT ACTIVITY AND EVENT.>>ONE MORE HERE AND THEN WE’LL GO TO THE PLANETARIUM.>>RELATIVE TO THE EARTH, IT’S 1.5 KILOMETERS OUT FROM WHERE WE ARE. IT MOVES WITH THE SUN WITH US ALL YEAR LONG. ONE AND A HALF MILLION KILOMETERS OUT.>>ANY QUESTIONS FROM THE PLANETARIUM?>>THE SPACE SHUTTLE DOESN’T GO OUT. WHAT DO WE DO IN CASE OF SERVICING? WE HAVE NO PLAN FOR SERVICING. THERE IS ONLY ONE THING THAT WOULD BE RELATIVELY EASY, THAT IS TO PUT MORE GAS IN THE GAS TANK. WE’VE MADE A PLAN TO DOCK THE SERVICING MODULE WITH IT, BUT WE’RE NOT PLANNING TO DO IT.>>ONE MORE FROM THE PLANETARIUM.>>HOW LONG UNTIL WE GET PICTURES? IT TAKES A TOTAL OF TWO WEEKS TO GET IT UNFOLDED AND SIX MONTHS TO GET IT SET UP AND WORKING. THEN WE SHOULD EXPECT BEAUTIFUL PICTURES.>>SO WE GET OUR COMMUNICATIONS BACK TO EARTH BY WAY OF THE DEEP SPACE NETWORK. THERE ARE SOME BIG DISHES OUT IN THE MOJAVE DESERT AND ALSO IN AUSTRALIA. SO BIG DISH. [INAUDIBLE QUESTION]>>OH, WHY DO WE BUILD MORE THAN ONE KIND REALLY? IN THE DESERT AND OTHER PLACES IN CHILE WE HAVE DIFFERENT THINGS WE COULD NEVER DO IN SPACE. NUMBER ONE, YOU CAN MAKE THEM A HECK OF A LOT BIGGER ON THE GROUPED. THAT ALWAYS WINS. BUT YOU CAN’T DO IT ALL WAVY. GO TO THE WAVELENGTH THAT YOU NEED TO USE. SOME COME THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARTH, AND SOME DON’T. WE BASICALLY–THAT’S WHAT KIND OF TELESCOPE YOU NEED TO STUDY. THE WAVELENGTH IN QUESTION, WHICH COMES FROM THE TEMPERATURE OF THE OBJECT.>>ANOTHER ONE FROM HERE THEN WE’LL MOVE TO THE PLANETARIUM AGAIN. [INAUDIBLE QUESTION]>>FOR THE FIRST YEAR, WE HAVE HUNDREDS OF THINGS THAT WE’LL LOOK AT. MY FAVORITE ONE WILL BE THE ONE THAT WE KNOW NOTHING ABOUT YET. THE ONE THAT WILL BE A BIG SURPRISE. YOU CAN SAY WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO LOOK AT. BUT YOU CAN’T SAY WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO SEE. THAT’S THE COOL THING ABOUT IT.>>PLANETARIUM? ANY QUESTIONS?>>WHAT WAS THE BIGGEST OR HARDEST CHALLENGE?>>THE SINGLE BIGGEST CHALLENGE WAS DEFINITELY THE MIRRORS. THOSE BIG MIRRORS, THEY’RE SO LIGHT THAT YOU COULD EASILY LIFT ONE OF THOSE YOURSELF. WE WOULDN’T THANK YOU, BUT YOU COULD. THEY COME DOWN TO 2 MILLIMETERS THICK. THEY’RE POLISHED TO THE SAME ACCURACY ALMOST THE SAME AS THE HUBBLE TELESCOPE.>>WASN’T THERE A PROBLEM WITH BRILLIUM THAT IT CRYSTALLIZED?>>WELL, BRILLIUM IS AN INTERESTING MATERIAL. METALURGISTS HAVE SPENT A LOT OF TIME TO MAKE IT INTO POWDER, AND THEN PRESS IT IN A FURNACE INTO A BLOCK THAT DOESN’T COOL DOWN. THAT’S AMAZING.>>THE QUESTION IS–THE HUBBLE FIELD WHERE THERE IS NOTHING TO LOOK AT. WE BASICRY HAVE CHOSEN THOSE DEEP FIELDS. THE ONCE THAT ARE MOST USEFUL NOW ARE THE ONES WE LOOKED AT BECAUSE WE UNDERSTAND THEM GREATLY. NOW WE KNOW THEY ARE EXCITING PLACES TO LOOK. THE HUBBLE WILL LOOK IN SOME. AND THEY’RE ALL VERY INTERESTING. SO THEY’RE ALL BEING PROPOSED.>>THE PLANETARIUM AGAIN. ANYBODY? [INAUDIBLE QUESTION]>>I WOULD LOVE TO PUT A REMOTE-A-CULTURAL SO WE CAN LOOK AT PLANETS NEXT TO IT. THAT’S NOT FEASIBLE THIS TIME BUT WE WILL NEXT TIME.>>WOULD YOU LIKE TO PUT AN OBSERVING CHAIR THERE?>>NO, HE NEED TO BREATHE.>>ONE MORE QUESTION, THEN WE’LL COME BACK HERE.>>THE ARIANE 5 WAS A LONG PROCESS. IT WAS OFFERED AS PART OF THE PARTNERSHIP. AND THEN IT TOOK US A LONG TIME TO SAY IT WAS THE RIGHT ANSWER.>>QUESTION HERE AND THEN THERE. [INAUDIBLE QUESTION] WE HAVE A BATTERY THAT IS GOOD FOR ABOUT AN HOUR BECAUSE WE FLY THROUGH THE SHADOWS FOR A LITTLE WHILE, AND THEN THERE IS SUNSHINE. ALWAYS BRIGHT ON ONE SIDE AND ALWAYS DARK ON THE OTHER.>>DO WE OFFER ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY? YES, WE’LL LOOK FOR THE EFFECT OF DARK MATTER BECAUSE IT CHANGES EVERYTHING. AND WE’RE GOING TO PURSUE THE SAME METHOD THAT WAS USED TO DISCOVER THE DARK ENERGY WITH THE STANDARD CANDLES AND ALL THAT. WE CAN DO IT BETTER WITH THE NEW TELESCOPE.>>THE BIGGEST ENGINEERING CHALLENGE TO KEEP THE TELESCOPE COLD AND STILL HAVE THE SOLAR POWER. IT’S ALL SOLVED WITH THIS GIGANTIC PIECE OF PLASTIC. BUT THAT’S NOT SIMPLE. YOU CAN’T GET A ROLL OF PLASTIC FROM THE GROCERY STORE. YOU TAKE IT OUT IN PIECES AND IT’S A HARD JOB. THE OUT LOOK? I HAVE THE CRYSTAL BALL RIGHT HERE. WE PLAN FOR THE BUDGET. CONGRESS HAS BEEN PRETTY DARN STEADY WITH THE BUDGET IT ALL ALLOCATES TO NASA. AND IT’S BEEN AS LEVEL AS YOU CAN HOPE TO BE FOR A LONG TIME. STEADY SUPPORT IS WHAT WE PLAN FOR AND HOPE TO GET.>>WE’LL HAVE A BREAK NOW TO SAY THIS CONCLUDES THE LIVE PROGRAM.

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