How To Climb Faster  On A Road Bike – Light Bike Or Light Body?

– [Daniel] Welcome again to GCN. And
today I’ve got the pleasure of being joined by Greg Foot of
the Head Squeeze Channel. – [Greg] Hey, guys. – Today we’re going to be answering the
question, what is better? A lighter bike or a leaner body? And
that’s why Greg’s here to make sure we get the science 100% accurate. – I think I’m also here because here
you’ve got a professional athlete, a lean body, and I’m pretty much the
opposite. That’s probably my role. But yes, we do want to make sure this is
an accurate and an objective test. So, we’ve come in, we’re going to simulate
the real world environment using this incredible treadmill we’ve
got here at the University of Bath. Now, what we’re going to do, what this
allows, it allows us to strip out traffic, rolling resistance, wind
resistance, and all these other factors. So, yes, it isn’t a real world test but
it’s the best we can do and it’s going to be scientific. – Yeah. It’s controlled conditions and it
allows us to go up to an 8% gradient, which is just the sort of thing that
the Tour de France riders are going to be doing this year, twice in fact,
when they take on the Alpe d’Huez two times in one stage. – We’re going to be doing two different
speeds. We’re going to do 8 kilometers an hour and 16 kilometers an hour. First
one’s kind of average club cyclist level. Ssecond one’s kind of average professional
level. Neither of which really I tick the box, as I found out
earlier when I gave it a go. Some professional cyclists
actually use treadmills to train on. Chris Boardman was one of those during his
career and Bradley Wiggins now has one in his shed. It’s like the world’s greatest
turbo trainer, but it does take a while to get the hang of. We’re using my old race
bike and we’re going to add 2.6 kilograms to bring it up to the weight of an
entry-level bike. Then, we’ll compare the results with Greg riding. As you can see,
he’s got muscles, unlike me, and weighs an extra 10 kilograms. So, the first thing we want to look at is
the effect of the bike’s mass. Now, the bike itself weighs 7.6 kilograms,
but we’ve also added in the weight of the harness as well, taking that up to 8.2
kilograms in total. So, that plus Dan’s lean, mean fighting machine weight,
takes us up to 81 kilograms dead on. So. first of all, we’re going to go for
the 8% incline, but at the 8 kilometers an hour. We’re going to have a look at the
power required to tackle that. So, we’ve got a PowerTap power meter on
his back wheel there, and that’s going to give us a signal through to this and we’re
going to be able to see his current power output. And also, once he’s up to speed
and that power’s kind of settled, I’m going to hit lap. We’re going to
measure for one minute and we’re going to take the average power over that one
minute. Right, Dan. One minute starts now. – So, what power are
we holding now roughly? – We’re about kind of 150-ish,
probably, on average. – I’m having to concentrate on this
treadmill as much as anything. – Oh, yeah. When I tried it, I was all
over the place. It just felt like it was going to whip away from right underneath
me. So, if the professional’s struggling, you’ll see back there,
right in the middle of the mat. – It’s because I struggle
going this slow, Greg. – Oh right, okay. That’s fast for me that.
Good work, just over 15 seconds left. ♪ [music] ♪ Okay, five seconds left. Three, two, one.
Average lap power: 146 watts. Okay. So, now what we’re going to do is
we’re going to add some mass onto Dan. So, Jonathan, if you can just load him up,
that’d be great. We’re going to add 2.6 kilogram of mass, it’s just
sand and water in a drinks bottle, and that’s going to be the equivalent of
him using an entry-level bike. We’ll have a look at the difference. So,
he’s going to get himself balanced up. – Right, I think I’m there. – All right. Once minute starts now. ♪ [music] ♪ So remember, what we’re looking at is
the effect of what makes the biggest difference? Is it a light bike compared to
a normal bike? And is it a heavy guy compared to a normal guy? Is it worth you
really spending thousands of pounds on a top-level bike? Does it make
that much difference to the power? Or perhaps you should just cut down a
little bit on calories? This will show us. So, that’s 30 seconds through. Good work. – And you can see much
difference in power in this one? – This is greater, and at about 155. So,
that’s an increase of about 7 watts, roughly. Eight seconds left. Five, four,
three, two, one, stopping it there. Average power 155. So, that’s a 9 watt
increase with the additional mass of 2.6 kilograms. – What’s that? It must be
about 7%, is it? Greater? – That takes a bit of maths. – It must be around that. – I can’t just do it. I know I’m from Head
Squeeze and everything but you know, I need to some electronics to work that
one out. Right, it’s time to up the speed. – Right. Whenever you’re ready. – Okay, and go. – A little bit harder at 16 k’s now. – I’m just, I’m starting to sweat. – Wait until you get on. – Yeah, I know. That’s the problem. ♪ [music] ♪ – And how’s the power
looking at this speed? – Yeah, so much higher. You’re averaging
about 280, over 280 watts, so that doubles speed
and the watts have jumped massively. – This is bringing back some
nightmares of laboratory testing that I used to have to do. – Have you done the
Alpe d’Huez hill as well? – I have done it, yeah. – How did it feel? – Safer. – Okay, man. That’s you done. Done, 279
watts I got as the average there, 279 at the doubled speed. So, now it’s
time to put the mass in. Last push. He’s not even broken a sweat. – I’m ready. – Okay, lap starts now. One minute. So,
this must be a weird experience because you’ve probably, when you
went up that big hill in Alpe d’Huez, you know, the eight and a bit
percent, you were probably on a good bike. – Yeah, I was on a good bike. Well, you
can start to understand why riders take their bottles out before they get to the
end of races. Not because they don’t need to drink anymore, because actually,
just with water in the bottles, it weighs quite a bit. – This just shows you the difference.
You’re now up at about 325 watts, so you’re right up there again. A huge
jump, you know, over 40 watts. And that’s just going from, you know, a
really, really good bike to an entry-level bike. – Yeah. It makes a huge difference and I
think that’s exactly what we’re going to show in this experiment, why riders spend
so much time losing weight from themselves and also from the bike. – And kudos as well, respect. Talking
whilst also keeping the balance, pretty impressive. Five seconds left,
keep pushing it. Three, two, one, stopping there, 319 watts
was the average, 319. Good effort. So, if you just hold there for
one sec and keep going maybe. We can crunch a little numbers, maybe I
can chuck out a percentage increase. Hi, man. I’ve punched the numbers a bit.
Really interesting, actually. So, for the slower speed, the
8 kph, the addition of the weight, so basically what happens when you
go from a really good bike to a kind of entry-level bike, that was
a 6.2% increase in power. – Yeah. – All right? And then, once we increase
the speed to, what was it? – Sixteen kph, yeah. – Sixteen kph. That was a 14% increase. – Oh, right. So… – So, it just shows you… – …6 to 14. So, the faster you go and
the better you are, the more beneficial it is to have a lighter bike. – Exactly. That showed it really nicely. – Perfect. Your turn, then. I’m looking
forward to seeing how you get on. – I’m really not. I’m really not. – Right. It’s time now to see the
difference that’s some excess body weight makes. – Normal body weight,
not scrawny body weight. – Right. So, without the bike, just me
on my own, I was 70.2 kilograms. With the bike and the harness, that came
up to 78.4. Greg, when he got on the scales was 80.8 kilograms. With the bike
and a harness, nice round figure of 89 kilograms. So, he’s going to start as
well with the 8 kilometers per hour, 8%, and then we’re going to try and get
him up to 16 kilometers per hour at the same gradient of 8%. But first he needs to
get his balance. So, let’s see how he gets on with that. Right, it’s started, 55
seconds to go. So, we’ve already done the experiment, and that’s the extra 2.6
kilograms on the bike. The total difference in weight between
myself and Greg is 10.6 kilograms. Let’s see what change that makes and how
that leads to an 8% gradient at 8 kilometers per hour. Five, two, one. One
hundred and sixty nine watts average for the minute over 8% gradient and 8
kilometers per hour. So, one test for you left to do. Let’s double the speed up and
see what difference that makes. – Great. Woah. How do you
make your legs move so fast? – You think you’re going to be
able to do that for a minute? So, we’re at the start of the minute. Go.
Already 6 seconds in, 52 seconds to go. Average power already significant higher
than when he was doing 8 kilometres per hour. Same gradient, remember, it’s just
double the speed. The faster you’re going, the more professional you are, the bigger
difference the extra weight should make. And we’re going to see exactly how much
difference in just a few moments, when Greg’s finished his one-minute
effort. Twenty five seconds to go now, over halfway there. The greater the total weight of a rider
and bike, the more power is required to ride uphill at a given speed. This was
shown as my power increased when we added weight to my bike, and Greg’s power was
higher than mine because he weighs more. In our experiment, weight was not
added to the rotating parts of the bike. An increase of one kilogram in the total
weight meant that, to maintain a given speed, Greg and I’s respected
power-to-weight ratios increased by 0.025 watts per kilo. We can see that being
lighter helps you to go further and faster, as you will use less energy at a
given speed. So, where is best to lose weight from? We think that most people
could lose a kilo or two from their bodyweight without much trouble or any
expense. For the pros, there is a UCI lower weight limit of 6.8 kilograms for
race bikes, meaning that only so much weight can be shaved from the bike. In
fact, as you’ll see from our pro bike features, most bikes for races such as the
Tour de France need to have weight added to them in order to meet this limit. Well done, Greg. Well, that was a great
effort and there’s some massive differences in the power. And the reason
we’ve got Head Squeeze along here today is because they’re used to doing these
kind of number-crunching experiments on a day-to-day basis. You’re going to need
to go over there now, just click on Greg’s hot, wheezing face
and you’re going to get there. ♪ [music] ♪

100 thoughts on “How To Climb Faster On A Road Bike – Light Bike Or Light Body?

  1. Non pro should have worn hard cycling shoes too and not soft trainers. I'm going out on my bike soon. A massive dump before hand is always a help…….

  2. No word about air resistance! And no air resistance in this experiment.  I think at 20 kmph your aerodynamic profile means more than  extra 2-3 kg. 

  3. the test is flawed because adding weight to the bike will not make a difference as long as the bike is still and not moving.
    that's because that inertia is a physical principle that says that objects with mass will "want" to stay in there state of motion unless acted by by an outside force and adding more mass to the object it will "wand more" to stay in its state of motion.
    adding more weight to the bike in a real world condition will make it harder to bike.
    in spite of this the test dos measure the difference while riding uphill but fails to consider all the variables.

  4. isnt very accurate dan is using cleats which increase the power of the bike 2x while the other guy is using normal shoes

  5. um…  If you're not actually climbing (i.e. increasing the potential energy of the bike and rider by increasing altitude), your experiment is actually pointless.  You've also removed the effect of air resistance, where most of the mechanical energy is dissipated at the quoted speeds.  You're measuring friction, rolling resistance, and effort involved with balancing the bike.  Each probably does scale a bit with mass, but it's a mistake to infer much about climbing performance.

  6. I HAVE A 17.3 LB Cannondale CAAD-10 for a training bike and also a Cannondale System Six that is totally upgraded and is only 13.6 lbs and I can certainly feel the difference, I also have Rolf TDF4SL tubular wheels so I am sure much more aero as well– depends if you want to or can afford such expensive bikes

  7. Dear Gents, I think the question should be 'what makes a better climbing bike'.  As weight is a factor for the human body to move an object I think we should look at rolling resistance as the major factor for improving climbing, excluding torque of frame and parts. My belief is: if you put wheels with under inflated tires you will have different results with properly inflation. In addition, if you have crappy wheels on an extreme bike and excellent tires on a typical (dangerous word) entry bike… well what do you think?

  8. lighter or heavier bike, it was on the same bike so bike's power transfer or stiffness was the same. the heavier or more entry level bike probably would mean even more power @ same speed.

  9. Is the rider riding on an inclined treadmill the same thing as riding up a hill in terms of lifting the weight of the bike and rider up an incline? 

  10. Could someone with physics qualifications do the maths?
    If you've stripped out everything like wind resistance etc, surely lifting 'n'kg a certain height in a certain time requires an amount of energy
    and lifting 'n'+20kg the same height in the same time requires a different amount of energy
    Or the same weight double the height etc etc

    Do the results of your experiments match the maths?

  11. NO
    the treadmill removes most of the diffrences that the diffrences mass and skill cause.
    NO FUCKING WIND OR KINETIC ENERGY , V = 0. alol you have is rolling inertia and friction.

  12. Let's get Lance Armstrong doped and watch him do 500 watts for half an hour like he used to do in the good old days.

  13. How does mass even affect the bike if its not actually moving anywhere, the wheels are just spinning? Am I missing something?

  14. False conclusions because of erroneous test setup.  

    The intended comparison was between weight of the bike or the rider.  Instead, it showed the changes of the overall system weight and between skilled and un-skilled riders.

    The larger rider was not only heavier, he was significantly less skilled. Less skilled means he was wobbling back and forth, requiring more power. Also, overall system weight changed which required more power. That is obvious, simple, physics.

    An accurate test would have the bicycle and rider system at the same weight throughout the test, transferring the weight between the rider and bike to test only the difference in weight placement, NOT changing the overall system weight. The weight bottles should move from the bicycle to the skilled rider's back pockets and some weight to his legs.  In that test, I would predict the skilled rider would use more power because of the weight added to his legs, the moving parts. if the weight shifted entirely to his back pockets (non-moving area), I predict no change in power within a margin for error.

    Then, repeat the test with the less skilled rider. I predict he will use more power then the skilled rider when the system weight is the same as the skilled rider, regardless of weigh placement.  However, he will use the same power whether the weight is in his pockets or on the bike frame.

    Fail.  Try it again.

  15. Using a treadmill eliminates the wind, thus making the experiment more realistic for the pro rider who is used to cycling behind a peloton with practically no wind in his face

  16. Interesting, I never knew that pro racers have to add weight to their bikes to meet the minimum weight requirements. Wouldn't competitions be more interesting if riders rode faster and faster over time? Let technology run its course.

  17. I couldn't watch it after 5minutes…the video was too long to be interesting. Jay-Zuz! Learn to edit please.. "Are they really going to film the entire minute? For each minute?" I'll watch a condensed version but not this. Sorry. Not sorry.

  18. I'm 75kg and 1.81m. I've got fairly muscular legs, which means that I've always been good in short bursts (in running sprints as well), but not so good in long climbs. In those climbs my legs start to feel weaker and weaker after a while, and I have to slow down quite a lot, while my "skinnier" friends go on and on with no major problems. I don't train as much as I'd like to, I have to be honest, but do you think this weakness I feel is mainly because of that same lack of training, or because my legs were made to something other than climbing (or both)? If I train harder, I'm sure I'll get better, but do you think the way my legs are shaped (as well as my body weight) will stop me from being as good as the "skinny legged" are in climbing? Oh, and I don't want my legs to get skinnier than they are now, I've always been told that I've got some great legs and I want to keep them that way 😛

  19. The idea behind this video is great, but you provided only some of the data we need to evaluate the "results." What we need in the video description (please) in order for the video to be clear, helpful, enlightening, or even meaningful is a table like the one below with the [? kg]s and [? W]s replaced by the data. You skipped to your conclusions without providing the numbers!
    Power Required at 8 % Grade
    Speed……………………Light Bike [? kg] …. Heavy Bike [? kg]
    8 km/h
    ………..Light Rider [? kg]…… 146 W …………… 155 W
    ………Heavy Rider [? kg]…… 169 W …………….. [? W ]
    16 km/h
    ………..Light Rider [? kg]…… 279 W ……………. 319 W
    ………Heavy Rider [? kg]…… [ ? W ] ……………. [ ? W ]
    Note: You provided the gross weights of rider & lighter bike together (78.4 kg & 89 kg), and we know the heavy bike weighs 2.6 kg more, but it would be nice to have these data separated. Moreover, 3 of the power measurements aren't provided! I hope you can fill in the table for us. Otherwise, you really need to redo the whole thing. THANKS.

  20. So the answer is both. Lose weight and get as light a bike as you can afford. Though I must say you have to laugh at the fat guys riding super light and expensive bikes. 

  21. That looked like one of those kinky bondage harnesses. Is there something you ain't telling us Dan? Hehe. Kidding. Good video

  22. The 6.8 kg under limit is rather rediculous I think; It doesn't take the weight of the rider in account and thus lighter riders are more disavantaged by this rule.

  23. Damn Dan is about 50 pounds lighter than me and just the 10 kilo increase added a lot of power required. I think in kilos im about 25 kilos heavier than him so i need to start losing

  24. Seems like you can calculate the power consumed from the test configuration. Power will be equal to the Weight times the angle times the velocity. My quick calculation yields 141 watts and 282 watts for the lighter configuration.

  25. Unless I've missed it, no-one seems to have mentioned that static weight added with bottles, is not taking into account rotating mass. A lot of the extra weight on budget bikes is in wheels and tyres, which will have the greatest effect on hills. This test will fail to account for that, unless this was intentionally excluded as a factor?

  26. I know it's long after the video was posted, but I have just discovered GCN few weeks ago.

    Do you have an oval chainrings? It looks like not evenly rotating

  27. It's neat to see some numbers, but from what I've read, the main reasons to lose the rider (fat) weight are (a) extra fat is not only more to lift up a hill, but it actually decreases lung capacity and efficiency, making it even harder to lift that weight, (b) it's harder to get into an aerodynamic posture without compressing your lungs, (c) it's harder on your back to support, (d) it puts more pressure on your saddle and bars, leading to more soreness and numbness, (e) the extra mass is usually not distributed evenly, shifting the center of mass forward and up, messing up balance, esp. on rough roads where the fatter one is, the more the jiggling is out of sync with the desired motion.  Sorry for that visual.  Oh, and the extra insulation makes it very hard to ride in the heat.

  28. What about efficiency of the frame? I switched from a Bicanchi 928 T cubed at 15lbs to a Bianchi Oltre at 14.9lbs and for the same watts up the same hill my times went from 12:16 seconds to 11:44 seconds. My average watts respectively were 346 and 338. So lower wattage, same bike weight, same rider weight, 30 seconds different.

  29. As an avid biker, I have a hybrid bike that weighs around 25+ lbs and it is extremely hard for me to go up inclines above 20%. While when I'm on my road bike which weighs under 15 lbs, I can climb hills much better before I drop.

  30. One thing that I think a lot of people forget about is that a lighter rider slightly lowers your center of gravity, whereas a lighter bike slightly raises your CoG.

    While fascinating, all of this is vaguely irrelevant to me as a fat rider with little money and horrible eating habits. A fragile, lightweight part will do me far less good than a month or two of healthy eating and exercise.

  31. good video. but not sure i get the 0.025w/kg in the summary, unless that was for flat riding? that's barely anything on a gradient. was closer to 0.2 w/kg by my calcs, which if you can loose a few kg on biker and/or rider would start to make a huge difference.

  32. I really doubt your results. The power to overcome gravity is always: P = m*g*vv
    which means when m is going up 1.2 % lets say from 85 kg to 86 kg then P goes up 1.2 % , too. The W/kg are the same because P/m = g*vv = constant

  33. does percentage bike weight relative to rider weight matter more than bike weight on it's own? is there such a thing as a 'good weight' for a bike (for an amateur cyclist) i'm pretty light but have a steel bike (9kg) and not really tempted by carbon till looking at the gains from lighter bike on the above clip.

  34. Body size has an effect on wind resistance however. If you're fatter you take up more space. More air resistance.

  35. Where's the rest of the data for the heavier guy? We got all the info about the lighter guy (watts for the 8km/hr and 16km/hr runs on the unweighted and weighted bike), but not on the heavier guy.

  36. How is it possible that the added mass can make a difference even if the cyclist is not gaining any potential energy like in a real climb? Thanks for the intresting video, I guess I'll need to shave more often to loose some grams of bodyweight!

  37. I have heard it said that for every kilo you are overweight and cycle 1km, it is like riding 1km 100m's. Is this true?

  38. This doesn't quite tell the whole story though…

    Cheaper bikes typically feature heavier wheel, tyre and sprocket combinations which increase rotational inertia (so increase acceleration times for the same power, increase braking distance, and reduce responsiveness). They usually enjoy lower quality components too, so an increase in friction through bearing roughness is to be expected. Cheaper tyres can also make a large difference – softer compounds, heavier and / or larger widths, or poor tread design can all reduce efficiency.

    However, the largest hurdle, alongside all-up weight, is aerodynamic efficiency. Typically, cheaper bikes have a larger frontal cross sectional area, and have less money spent in the R&D process to refine the bikes' aero properties.

    As an example, on a flat course, a TT bike, ridden at the same power as a 'normal' road bike, by the same rider, on the same course, will usually result is a quicker lap or split time.

    I think the formula F=MA could have saved the whole experiment from being conducted, but hey, we all like to see a pro breezing a test the journo struggled on!

  39. Why all this tread mill stuff to proof Newton was right? High school physics tells us pushing weigh uphill needs power.

  40. this experiment does not take into account wind resistance.. losing weight is supposed to have a significant effect on your ability to be aero. wider body means you have more front facing surface area. and larger people can't crouch as well.

  41. Lol I'm 6'4" and 162 lbs and don't open my mouth for air until 230-250 watts on my 28 lb cross bike with road tires and toe clips. My paces on commutes rock the socks off of real roadies

  42. (WORK = FORCE * DISPLACEMENT) if the bike and cyclist are not displacing its weight (force), the advantage of being lighter won’t be that noticeable when compared to a real road trip, where that weight (force) has to be displaced.

    It would be great to have a physicist on the show to explain it.

    Thanks for the videos, I´ve learned a lot about cycling and perfecting my techniques, keep up with the good WORK.

  43. I'm not convinced that simply adding weight i.e. water bottles is a fair comparison from a light weight race bicycle vs a heavy "typical" bicycle. There are many more factors involved when it comes to inexpensive vs expensive bikes… wheel weight and those forces, tire weight and rolling resistance, bearings, hubs. geometry, etc. As an amateur recreational cyclist, I can tell you definitively that less expensive bikes consume way more energy and ate a day and night difference between a really good bicycle, with relation to the same or an equivalent rider. For example, simply changing my wheels and tires to a set that's half the weight of the stock wheels/tires provided me with HUGE gains in acceleration, sustained speed, top speed and most importantly efficiency. This simple change resulted in being able to ride a minimum 20 miles further at approximately 4 mph average faster speed and to speeds of approx 10 mph more. That's just wheels/tires!

  44. Not a single mention of standard deviation when presenting the stats. not very scientific then is it ?

  45. This is completely flawed it's almost a joke. They guy is not fat, but doesn't have the cardio preparation, clipless and he even trembles in that bike.

  46. Get an average bike (HEAVIER, means more watts), reduce PSI in the tyres (SLOWER, means more watts). Ride like this for 3 months, and the same rider over the same distance will burn more fat.
    Then that rider will be 2 to 5 kg lighter, if they can loose 2 to 5 kg (THATS ME;) )
    Average price of a bike 2 to 5 kg lighter than top spec racer ROAD/MTB? £100's less.

    This is a no brainer for me. I am not a competitive cyclist.
    Loose the body weight and save a huge amount of money.

  47. What about reciprocating mass? Strapping weight on a bike is not the same as percentage increases on a non-race bike.

  48. I though they would have the same bicyclist with 3 different setups.
    1. Biker with light bike. This is the control.
    2. Biker with heavier bike (let's say 10lbs heavier)
    3. Biker (with 10lbs weighted vest) with light bike.
    Bike up a hill and compare the results. That seems more straight forward.

  49. Hmm. How does the angle of the bike reflect the change in potential energy associated with riding up hill? I think there might be a problem here with test design.

  50. Does this also have a similar effect on the flats. As i have a fact 9r tarmac with ultegra 6800 and superlite carbon clinchers but my bike still weights 7.85kgs. I race crits with only 80mtr elevation over 38kms. Ave spd 40kms. How much wood i gain buy spending the $4500 on a sworks frame. Cheers Cam Geelong Australia

  51. Daniel was so young…and heavier than expected (full 20 kilos heavier than me) …and so Skinny Hugh Jackman looking XD

  52. The same amount of weight will require the same amount of power to propel it. The question is whether it is useful weight (bottle of water, big calf muscles) or useless weight (heavy frame, rolls of fat). Fat is not only dead weight to carry, but may affect the rider's ability to shed heat, and may make the rider less aerodynamic. Heavy wheels (rotating weight) make more difference than a heavy frame. A leaner rider is more important than simply a lighter rider.

  53. What is easier to carry up a hill…a 50 pound weight or a 100 pound weight. Its sort of obvious. Low BMI wins on the hills.

  54. The problem with using a treadmill for this test is that you never change the potential energy (mass x g x height). All the treadmill does is change the resistance to simulate the hill. So not sure you will or should theoretically see any difference with different weights. The only two reasons weight will have an impact is due to change in rolling friction ( minor in this case) and during accelerations (not sure that was focus of this test). Better to do this test on a real hill, which GCN has in another video.

  55. Some of these videos make me realise how used to obesity I am. That's the "heavy" rider, but he'd get made fun of for being a scrawny little guy over here in America.

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