If the universe is only 14 billion years old, how can it be 92 billion light years wide?

When we look out into space, we are not only
looking at things that are far away, we’re looking at things that existed in the past. For instance, the Sun is about 93 million
miles away and it takes light about 8 minutes to get here. Thus, when we sit down in the morning with
some toast and our first cup of coffee for the day and look at the Sun, we’re seeing
it not as it is now, but as it was when we put the bread in the toaster. Time and space are inextricably intertwined
when we talk about how far away things are. This is especially true when we talk about
large scale structures of the universe. We even have a distance scale called a light
year, which is the distance that light travels in a year. In more familiar terms, a light year is nine
and a half trillion kilometers or just shy of six trillion miles. We use the unit light year because nothing
travels faster than light. It’s very convenient. But it is most convenient when we talk about
the size of the universe. Astronomers have determined the age of the
universe very precisely. It is 13.7 billion years old. Exactly how we know this is perhaps the subject
of another video, but for the moment, let’s take that number as a given. If we do, we can ask a very simple question. How big is the visible universe? There are lots of tricky ways to think about
that, but let’s start with perhaps the most obvious. We can’t see the universe before it began
because, duh- well, that’s what beginning means. When the universe began, it was filled with
light which then travelled through the cosmos. And, if the universe began 13.7 billion years
ago and we’re just now seeing it arrive, it had to have traveled 13.7 billion light
years before it hit Earth. And to make that point solid, astronomers
can actually see light from shortly after the universe began. It’s called the Cosmic Microwave Background
radiation and it’s the oldest thing we’ve ever seen. It is hitting the Earth from every direction
and it is, to all intents and purposes, a photograph of the birth of the universe, 13.7
billion years ago. Accordingly, it would be reasonable to say
that the visible universe consists of a sphere, centered on the Earth, with a radius of 13.7
billion light years. Boom! Done. Except that this is completely wrong. That’s one of the sneaky things about science. It can fool you if you think too fast. Sometimes you have to slow down and mull things
over. And, if you think about it for a moment, you’ll
realize that this way of thinking assumes that the universe is static and, at least
on average, distances between objects aren’t changing. But we know this isn’t true. To begin with, the Big Bang happened. The universe is expanding and it used to be
expanding much faster than it is now. And that means that the simple answer isn’t
good enough. I don’t want to get too deeply into the
details of the Big Bang, but it boils down to the idea that the universe was once smaller
and hotter and has been expanding since the beginning. I made a video about it if you want more. And that expansion is key to understanding
what is going on here. We start by imagining what the universe looked
like when this microwave background radiation was emitted. It was hot everywhere. No place was special. Well, I guess one was, kind of. And that place is the current location of
the Earth. But, at that moment, it looked like everywhere
else. Now there was a sphere centered around that
point, and at that time, and that sphere is the origin of the cosmic microwave background
arriving at the Earth now. That radiation moved toward the Earth at the
speed of light and it took 13.7 billion years to get here. If we look at a sphere smaller than that special
sphere, that light has already passed the Earth and we can’t see it. Light from a bigger sphere isn’t here yet,
so we don’t see it either. When this light was emitted shortly after
the Big Bang, this sphere’s radius was about 42 million- that’s with an M- light years
away. Naively, you’d expect that this light would
have taken 42 million years to get here, but it took 13.7 billion- and that’s with a
B- years to travel to Earth. And the reason that it took so long is that
space was and is expanding. Now, if you think about that, it means that
space between that sphere and the location of the Earth had to be expanding pretty fast. Otherwise the light would have passed by the
Earth long ago. I mean, it was only 42 million light years
and it has been nearly 14 billion years. So that sphere from which the microwaves were
originally emitted also grew in size. And, in the simplest calculation, that sphere
would now be 41 billion- that’s with a B- lightyears away. However, it turns out that the simplest calculation
isn’t quite right. You see, about five billion years ago, an
energy field that we call dark energy became important. Dark energy is a repulsive form of gravity,
which means that the expansion of the universe isn’t slowing down, it’s accelerating. That, of course, means that after 9 billion
years of the expansion of space slowing down, it’s now speeding up. When you take into account the effect of dark
energy, that radius of the sphere from which the microwaves were emitted has grown from
42 million, with an M, lightyears to 46 billion, with a B, lightyears. And this highlights the confusion that arises
from expanding space. We see the light from shortly after the Big
Bang. It was emitted a short distance away and now
the location from which it was emitted is now about eleven hundred times farther than
it was. Further, when we see it, we see it as it was
then and not as it is now. Indeed, remember that when the light was emitted,
the conditions at the location of the sphere were the same as here on Earth. But the conditions here have changed. Instead of a bath of energy, we now have stars
and galaxies. That’s also true on that sphere. So, if we could somehow see 46 billion lightyears
away, presumably there are also stars and galaxies. But we don’t see them there because light
from objects that are currently that far away now hasn’t had time to reach us yet. In fact- and this is a mind blower- we’ll
never see those stars and galaxies. After all, they are moving away from us very
fast and space is still expanding. We saw that location when the universe was
young, but we can’t see them now. It gets weirder. Currently, there is a sphere around the Earth
with a radius of about 15 billion light years. Objects that are now outside that sphere at
this moment we’ll never see as they look now, no matter how long we wait. I’ll repeat that so it can sink in. We can currently see objects 46 billion lightyears
away, but we see them as they were in the distant past. And any objects that are currently within
15 billion light years we will be able to as they are now, although we’ll have to
wait a long, long time for that light to get to us. And, because of the expansion, it gets worse. It means that we constantly lose stars that
we can see. Indeed, we lose about 20,000 stars per second. So there are stars that emitted photons at
this moment that we will eventually see, but the photons that they emitted at this slightly
later moment that we’ll never see. One day, the expansion of the universe will
make it so that almost all of the galaxies we see in our telescopes today, which I remind
you now we’re seeing as they were in the distant past, will slip from our view. We will one day only be able to see galaxies
from our local group, meaning the Milky Way, Andromeda, and a few dozen minor galaxies
in the vicinity. So that’s the answer to the question. Our visible universe has a radius of about
46 billion lightyears, even though it’s only 13.7 billion years old. But we’re not seeing that distant point
as it is now, but as it was shortly after the universe began. And the ongoing expansion makes things even
worse. The bottom line is that if we’re ever going
to try to explore other galaxies, we better get cracking. Okay, so that one was something of a mindblower,
but that’s cosmology for you. If you liked what you heard, please like,
subscribe and share. And be sure to click on the little bell icon
to make sure that you get notified of every new video we post. Otherwise you only get notified about a few. And I’m sure you wouldn’t want to miss
some new tidbit about physics because, of course, physics is everything.

100 thoughts on “If the universe is only 14 billion years old, how can it be 92 billion light years wide?


  2. Ok if the Big Bang originated at a specific point in space, how can we see light 13.7 billion years old coming from all around us?


  4. The expansion of space is unclear here. What actually happens? What does expanding of space mean in relation to objects in space?

  5. This is the nonsensical version of the Universe.
    Let me tell you WHY this is wrong!

    A theory is better than other theory if that first is simpler (less unsupported variables) and equally explaining of the observations. If the theory is capable of predicting things that the other cannot, that is also a plus.

    I created a theory called the Hypergeometrical Universe Theory (HU). This theory explains that the Universe is a lightspeed expanding hyperspherical hypersurface with a 4D radius of 13.58 billion light years and that is 13.58 billion years old.

    Why would my Universe 4D Radius be distinct from the Current (L-CDM) one? The answer is simple. Dr. Riess, the Nobel Prize Winner who measured the distances of Type 1a Supernovae (SN1a), did so using the Stellar Candles Hypothesis. This hypothesis is UNSUPPORTED and states that all SN1a are equivalent (identical). SN1a detonate when they reach the Chandrasekhar Mass Limit and that has a G^{-3/2} dependence. This means that Stellar Candles Hypothesis is the same as constant G Hypothesis.

    Einstein and everyone could not create an epoch-dependent theory of Gravitation because they use an EMPIRICAL law of Gravitation that Newton created. I derived my law of Gravitation by correcting Newton's Laws of Dynamics (replacing it with the Quantum Lagrangian Principle) and replacing the current model for matter with the Fundamental Dilator Paradigm.

    One thing leads to another and I derived an epoch-dependent Law of Gravitation that passes all General Relativity tests, that is identical to the Laws of Electromagnetism (thus allowing for the irradiation of Gravitation Waves or Energy). The epoch-dependent Law of Gravitation permits me to lift the Stellar Candles Hypothesis and correct the SN1a distances. Once corrected all distances become smaller than the age of the Universe times the speed of light.

    Follow this link to see the SN1a distance predictions:

    Nobody and no theory can predict these SN1a distances, solve all the problems without Dark Matter:

    Fell free to ask questions:
    New model for matter, based upon the Fundamental Dilator:
    The Fundamental Dilator by Marco Pereira on Hypergeometrical Universe (https://hypergeometricaluniverse.quora.com/The-Fundamental-Dilator)

    A little lesson on the Hypergeometrical Standard Model by Marco Pereira on Hypergeometrical Universe (https://hypergeometricaluniverse.quora.com/A-little-lesson-on-the-Hypergeometrical-Standard-Model)

    Fluctuations of Zero by Marco Pereira on Hypergeometrical Universe (https://hypergeometricaluniverse.quora.com/Fluctuations-of-Zero)
    how the Universe was set to travel at the speed of light:
    Was the Creation of the Universe an Entropic Explosion – An Hyperspherical Prince Rupert’s Drop by Marco Pereira on Hypergeometrical Universe (https://hypergeometricaluniverse.quora.com/Was-the-Creation-of-the-Universe-an-Entropic-Explosion-An-Hyperspherical-Prince-Rupert-s-Drop)
    Main Article:
    2017: The Hypergeometrical Universe Theory: Cosmogenesis, Cosmology and Standard Model (http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/WSN-82-2017-1-96-1.pdf)
    2018:The Case for the 4th Spatial Dimension and the Hypergeometrical Force (http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/WSN-98-2018-127-139.pdf)
    2018: The Coma Cluster, Bullet Cluster and Weak Gravitational Lensing (http://www.worldscientificnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/WSN-101-2018-222-228.pdf)
    2019: The Optical Path of Ancient Photons and the Supernova Project (https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3399192)

  6. How? You think that a God who can create a universe simply by speaking cannot create a universe billions of years old? Besides, no one said the universe was only 6,000 +/- a few years old. Only the earth.

  7. "Our" universe is anything but, and we sure as hell haven't a clue how old it is. I mean after all, there is no doubt left redshift is in Halton Arp corner and not Hubbles. With respect to both, rip, but Jesus talk about beating a dead horse( looking at you modern science). Best guess is we're in a steady state universe and that's about as high a confidence we could have.

  8. To make things even worse, people who have an attention deficit disorder will never understand much of anything leave alone something like this.

  9. Well are we expanding towards Andromeda or is Andromeda expanding towards us and are we stationary but if we're moving we should be moving away from Andromeda and Andromeda should be moving away from us but scientists say that Andromeda is on a collision course with the Milky Way so either we're sitting still or Andromeda and the Milky Way are moving towards each other and how can that be if everything is expanding away from each other maybe it's because the Milky Way is dragging its ass and Andromeda has more horsepower hell I don't know but stuff like this boggles your mind when you can't visually see it to make sense of it

  10. One thing is for sure you cant determine the center of the univers bcoz everything is moving even the milky way.. In order to pinpoint the center of the univers is you have to kwon wheres the egde of the univer..then you can tell how old the unevers is..

  11. The more I think about (and watch) this episode, the more mesmerized and baffled I feel by it. If the universe, actually the CMB sphere centered on our current location, reached a size of 42 million light year radius in only 400,000 years, that means it must have been expanding at an average speed of about 31 million km/sec ! And if it reached a present day size of 46 billion light year radius in "only" 13.7 billion years, it must have been expanding at about one million km/sec average speed ! It almost makes me wonder how the CMB was able to reach us at all !!!
    Dr. Lincoln wasn't kidding when he said space was expanding much faster than it is today. I hope he does many more episodes about this!

  12. 03:15 wrong. The universe was not expanding faster than it is now, it has always been accelerating in expanding so it's expanding faster now than it was before

  13. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pk9oDrpf6k Stephen Meyer: God and the Origin of the Universe
    According to a nationwide survey, more than two-thirds of atheists and one-third of agnostics believe that “the findings of science make the existence of God less probable,” while nearly half of self-identified theists believe “the findings of science are neutral with regard to the existence of God.” But what if there is another option? What if the discoveries of science actually lend support to belief in God?

    Taped at the 2019 Dallas Science and Faith Conference at Park Cities Baptist Church in Dallas sponsored by Discovery Institute’s Center for Science and Culture.

  14. One very confusing question – if the waves from big bang still reaching us even now, how we are already here fully developed to experience the same. Does that mean that the matter that formed solar system travelled and reached to its current state faster than these waves??

  15. The present "temperature " of the universe is 2.7 K and still cooling down. The expansion rate is -like all other parameters of nature – a function of "temperature" . When the "temperature " has reached 0.0001K , the expansion rate is so slow that gravity rate will win at last . So finally gravity will cause our present universe to contract – following F= m.a – far faster than any expansion rate and producing a new Big Bang. I will not be there to be a witness. Neither will you. Sorry…

  16. Light travels at a rate of 186,000 miles per second.
    DMV employees serve 1 costumer every 186 minutes.
    How much light energy passes through a DMV in a black hole?? In a curved environment???

  17. These theories are all based on our limited human understanding of the laws of the Universe, most notably the suggestion that nothing travels faster than light. Angelic beings can travel from one place to another in NO time, as people who have experienced NDEs will attest to as they've been taken from one realm to another instantaneously. In the spirit realm, limitations of distance and speed no longer apply.

  18. That's a nice outfit, but a lighter shade would better suit this scientist's hair color and skin tone. Just sayin' 😉

  19. if THEY make it Confusing enough then it must be TRUE… and if you want to Pass your science Test you better believe the CONFUSION

  20. So in the time that it took for me to watch this video the light from the sun could have been enjoyed if I only stepped outside 8 minutes ago.

  21. Was created in 6 days and 6 nights.

    We had appointment with Moses for 40 nights.
    We also gave Gospel to the setting of the sun, and TORAH to Moses.

    Torah: Moses 40 nights
    Gospel: we gave them "Tzolk'in 260 days.

    Moses, we gave him human gestation in solar units. 40×7<(Sabbath) =280 days of human pregnancy.

    280 days. Human gestation by the equator a day is 12hrs in Eastern hemisphere.
    260 days are also the western hemispheres human gestation days.
    25920÷72hrs = 360°

    72/12hrs=6 days. Earth is 4.8 billion years old. And Universe (night) is, 6×7=42÷21
    Universe 21billion years old on 6th october. Minus earths 4.8 billion.
    We will be exactly. 16.2billion light years old.. Bible is Right.. God created us in his six days, which are equivalent to our 1light year.

    1 light year is 365.2425 days which in return gives us the
    d = c x t
    d = (1.86 x 105) x (3.154 x 107 seconds)d = 5.8 x 1012 or 5.8 trillion miles which is the speed of light.
    Tzolk'in 73/365=3.14 golden ratio. Thats Gods signature and the methods of calculation.

  22. To simulate the fine-tuning of 6 of nature's constants visit UFTmachine.com. No tablets. The focus is on the what of fine-tuning not the why.

  23. The universe's size is not set. It is expanding. Light that comes to the earth started in a smaller cosmos long ago. Because it reaches the earth today gives an indication that the universe is young, and cannot be old. Microscopic radiation halos in crystals also indicate that the universe is young since nuclear radiation's age (half life) is measured in thousands of years.

  24. In the beginning the earth was void and without form. God created this realm , this reality, CONSCIOUSNESS folks. Look into it. Super string theory etc. The core building blocks are pure CONSCIOUSNESS… Discuss 😃

  25. who is AGREES WITH all these lies who makes this s*** up What makes someone a compulsive liar?there are a lot of holes in these theories

  26. Makes sense. As if we were looking a lamp bulb moving pretty fast away from us and accelerating. So one time these stars will travel near the light speed and we won`t see anything out there and the color of the stars will change to blue due to Doppler effect.

  27. ssSSS sss SSSSS .. SSSs..sSSSSS…SSSS..SSS>.sSSSS.>Sss.s.s.s.s.s.sssssssssssSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS <—– That's all I can fucking hear. Sort your fucking audio out!

  28. Three dimensional curvature is too difficult to understand for most people. When the small curvature universe was made, it was homogenious mass of energy. Gravity was irrelevant. Matter was irrelevant. As the curvature started opening up, subatomic particles formed along with gravitational attraction. As space started forming, atoms of subatomic particles could form. Aggregate collections of atoms could form. Concentrated gravity became king. As empty space formed, the mass of matter started becoming king as black holes. Etc. Etc. Etc.

  29. If the universe and the space in it is expanding therefore the galaxies in it should be moving away from each other’s, if that is the case then why is the Milky Way and the Andromeda on a collision course…?!

  30. "Age" and "distance" are two completely different measurements. My "age" is 52 years, but I have not changed my "distance" from foot to head of 6'2" since I was about 17. Dumb to say the age of the universe MUST be the same as the distance across.

  31. I only have one question . . . What caused the "Big Bang"?

    What stays in motion remains in motion, what stays at rest remains at rest. What outside force caused the "Big Bang"? Even "Quantum Theory" cannot explain this, as "Quantum Science" which is a conundrum in and of itself cannot be proven, nor witnessed, only hypothesized upon, and not quantified in positive, negative, nor in neutral terms. Even quantum strings cannot be observed according to science, as the observance changes the string(s) by such observance, and thus negates its existence.

    So, what caused the "Big Bang"?

  32. But why should earth be situated in the middle, for ex it could be situated 14 billions lightyears away than how it can expend in all directions? If it would be situated on the edge.

  33. I’ve been trying to tell people a similar thing for years; the universe is much bigger than 27.6 billion light years across. You have put some meaningful figures into the explanation. Thank-you!

  34. English: According to Brazilian Paranormal Herick Athayde Usami, there are infinite universes similar to ours. Our universe is made up of 3 Great Plans: 1 – Spiritual (very subtle), Astral (moderately subtle), and Physical (the densest). Each of these Planes consists of 54 density-dimensions (layers of matter with different vibratory frequencies). Of the 54 density dimensions of the Physical Plane, 18 are likely to harbor life. The Solar System Planets are habitable in only two density dimensions each. The land is habitable in the First and Tenth Dimension. Mars is habitable in the Fourth and Thirteenth Dimensions. To understand all this, I recommend visiting the HerickUsami website, available for free download. Handout I deals with this subject (dimensions-density).

    Português: Segundo o Paranormal brasileiro Hérick Athayde Usami, existem infinitos universos semelhantes ao nosso. Nosso universo é composto por 3 Grandes Planos: 1 – Espiritual (sutilíssimo), Astral (medianamente sutil), e Físico (o mais denso). Cada um destes Planos é composto por 54 dimensões-densidade (camadas de matéria com frequências vibratórias diferentes). Das 54 dimensões-densidade do Plano Físico, 18 são passíveis de abrigarem vida. Os Planetas do Sistemas solar são habitáveis em apenas duas dimensões-densidade cada um. A terra é habitável na Primeira e na Décima dimensão. Marte é habitável na Quarta e na Décima Terceira dimensões. Para bem entender tudo isto, recomendo acessar o site do HerickUsami, disponível para downlad gratuito. A Apostila I é que trata deste assunto (dimensões-densidade).

  35. There's 2 options here:

    1) The estimate on the universe's age is too low.
    2) The time of it's existence is correct.

    In the case of 1) the way the universe's age was determined is far off the extrapolation chart,
    and as mathmaticians know, extrapolation is a very tricky and wildly guesswork thing,
    the farther you extrapolate from the known.

    In the case of 2) the way the universe is expanding suggest more rapid expansion at the start.
    In case of a big bang, there could be FTL progression of pre-matter substrate.
    That would cause more rapid expansion than the speed of light allows

    After 'condensation' into regular matter and energy substances
    (photons, electrons. protons, neutrons,etc)
    it all went back to sub-light speeds, with only photons and such keeping at lightspeed.

    Ofc, the size of the universe is also an estimate, and could be very very VERY much larger
    than the estimate.

    I once posted (somewhere) something about photon densities at range, which I think
    is true, that states that parts of the universe simply can't be seen because the range to it
    is so large that without yet inexistent specialized technology, the amount of
    photons required to capture it's existence is simply not possible.

    So, to me the universe is very possible much larger than most scientists agree on,
    while the lousy scientists conclude that their estimates must be correct,
    propagating a time honored 'tradition' of 'the earth is flat and everyone knows it' attitude,
    which in turn makes for lousy science.
    (no proof of existence is proof of non-existence=false, "earth is flat"=false )

    There's also a combo of the two options, 1) and 2), ofc..
    (excluding multiple Big Bangs, which over time would cause collision at great magnitude)

  36. I’ve been seeing reports that say the speed of light isn’t a constant, or no longer is, as the speed of light has been slowing?

    Why we should measure our universe…
    First PURPOSE is that
    We WANT TO know its SIZE
    But More than science; Quran and Hadith has explained about how big is the universe

  38. Nothing travels faster than light but it is 14b year old and 96 billion light years big. I have a bridge in Brooklyn i need to sell u.

  39. Mankind, in its limited wisdom, sees everything through the prism of a beginning and an end! Mankind can not really wrap its head around infinity and eternity! Doesn't compute!

  40. Because as with any bomb that explodes, the outermost fragments of that bomb will travel faster than say fragments nearer to the core of the blast. More energy excerpted on them.Throw a stone and then a brick, as hard as you can, which one travels further. Watch bomb blasts in slow mo.

  41. The universe is static! The redshift in starlight towards earth is caused by gravity and beeing a measure for distance, but not speed. See Einsteins paper from 1911. I fully agree with Thomas Gold and Louis Essen about the static universe. Even Einstein himself was not willing to agree with the (false) idea of an expanding universe! … so … NO big-bang ! … and therefore nobody can say anything about the age of the universe !

  42. Wrong as usual…
    The universe is /was
    Color of star light as to distance is wrong…
    Your whole premise is wrong.. !!
    Chuck it all and start over!!

  43. Hi Dr. Don Lincoln,
    Thanks for your simple explanation on this subject. I was puzzled by this factor before I listened to you. I was a little confused by the term comoving distance and such. Your explanation cleared the cloud in my thought. Thanks indeed a lot.

  44. If you really think it through and we are seeing the past 13.7 billion years ago, everything may not be as we see it. The universe may be collapsing and we are unaware. Who says the rules are unchanging. I believe that everything is in some order. Just as we are born grow old and die the cosmos does also. When you were young the death of the universe was scary, now it's a given, I believe the universe will collapse, then the whole cycle starts again. One last in the Bible the "Big Bang" is how GOD created everything, how did the people know the origins before they knew math and science.

  45. Lights speed was by design. There are forces/energy that can travel instantaneously anywhere- in fact some travel so fast, that if it left now, it could cross the universe billions of years ago we see as the past. An infinite time. Therefore, time is relative to our physical existence on Earth, but in spiritual form past present and future exist all at the same time.

  46. they don't know the age – an idea becomes popularized and other ideas pushed aside when new data comes to light that break the original theory. science has zero knowledge of how anything could come to exist in the first instance.

  47. Size and age of the universe will never be known. Humans simply lack the technology necessary to find out. Humans can calculate the OBSERVABLE universe. But there is far far far more out there than just the observable. Anything beyond the observable is just a wild guess that can never be fully proven.

  48. I don't see how the big bang and earth can be created at the same time. We all know the earth was formed around 4 billion years ago. So how is it possible to see the beginning of the universe creation which they say is about 14 billion years old. Wouldn't that radiation be long gone by now? The background radiation has to be something else. It doesn't make sense to me. I can't fathom how you can hear it that far back and come to the conclusion that's when it began. What happened to all the time that it takes it to reach us. Didn't the universe have to have been created 14 billion years prior to the 14 bil we are getting now. Something has to have been formed prior to the reading we are getting now. That is one thing I will never believe in. The big bang never happened. I believe in aliens from other planets than I do the bigbang

  49. I really enjoyed this video, thankyou Dr Don this has given me some more insight particularly through your excellent delivery of information.

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