Introduction to Millimeter-Wave Technology (Contd.)

Hello students welcome back to our course
on visual semantics for visual communication. In our last lecture we talked about various
steps of communication and we talked about how information is percolated step-by-step. Having said that it is now, we need to realize
that there are various barriers of communication as well. So whenever communication is happening between
two entities there is a barrier which comes into, there are difficulties in communication
which come into picture. So when you have a communication happening
between two individuals or two groups or any individual to a group and the messages or
the information is being conveyed or propagated obviously there are chances that there could
be various difficulties coming picture, there could be various loses, there could be various
communication gap we manier times talk about communication gaps. So let us try to understand and have an idea
about what are the different barriers or limitations of communication as well. And if you see in this slide the barriers
are many, and that leads us to the fact that communication needs to be designed in a very,
very prudent and practical manner. So the first barrier which comes into picture
are the physical barriers, you know there are various physical barriers which come in
terms of communication say physical or systems or ecological barrier, say for example, you
are trying to communicate with a person who is very far away whom you cannot see or interact
within person. So there could be some amount of barrier coming
in terms of communication. So this is the most primary and basic barrier
that we face in our day-to-day lives and more so, in our modern living where human beings
have been separated over geography, have been separated because of different commercial
and work practices, different needs of the day have lead us to physical separation and
the physical barriers often come into picture which is to a great extent has been mitigated
by the technology as far advancements no doubt. So coming to the other barriers there could
be system or ecology barrier where the communication manier times happens in terms of systems,
that there are hierarchy of communication, there is a particular method of communication,
so and organization to give an example communication happens within our organization or corporation
or an institution in a particular system in a particular structure. And there cannot be communication happening
from any point to any point there has to be a particular system or there is a particular
ecology within that organization for communication. So this manier times poses a communicational
issue and many organizations actually work towards communication design so that this
communicational barrier could be, you know reduced or modified so that there are better
employee satisfaction or there is better communication happening and there is no communication gap
between different entities within that organization. So that is also a great barrier when it comes
to communication. Now the next barrier to communication is an
attitudinal barrier or which is relating to individualistic barrier where we have individual
approach or a hindrance towards communication. So there could be people or there could be
individuals who tend to communicate more, there could be individuals who tend not to
communicate and there could be individuals who tend to miscommunciate or misread. As we talked in the last lecture that in the
very nature of information is to reduce ambiguousness, is to reduce uncertainty, and to predominant
the health uncertain equation. So manier times this attitudinal barrier becomes
a conflict with the very intensions of information. So when there is a conflict at an individualistic
level, at an attitudinal level it could form a barrier. So we need to be educated enough to understand
that communication problems may happen at this level as well. Manier times the barriers happen because of
ambiguity of the messages itself the words and phrases. For example, manier times we try to use a
particular word which actually is meant for something else. Say for example, manier times in e-mail communication
we write this word as ASAP as soon as possible, but the word the ambiguity of that word and
the intent of that the social intent of the organizational intent, communicational intent
of that word is manier times misreading, many people look at as ASAP as very derogatory. It means that as if you are trying to push,
you are trying to, you know force someone to act on it in a very fast possible manner
and for many other people actually take the essence of ASAP and feel the essence that
it is urgently required or something like and act towards it so manier time the message. That your putting for forward in form of some
kind of word or phrase could be misleading to the receiver there could be individual
linguistic or communicational ability so as we have as we know there are innumerous languages
and dillies in our in the entire world and manier times this individualistic linguistic
ability may become a major barrier for various communities or various communication channels
there thee could be physiological barriers physiological barriers relates to various
kinds of disability that are associated with people say. For example in terms of visual communication
the visual impairment or any kind disability in terms of visual perception may lead to
a physiological barrier in terms of that particular communicational mode and though I am talking
about various kind of barriers of communication in this particular slide but think also understand
that all these barriers are these constrains actually frame the need to innovate on these
particular areas and that has actually happen over course of time where lot of innovations
go technologically psychologically physiologically from a various disciplinary stand point various
innovations various creative approaches have been taken to medicate many of these problems
one of the example is the brain. You know formation of the brain or when we
are talking about computer interface we talk about accessibility where manier times fort
visually disable people the screen is read out what can be read as a text or an image
it is being read out it is benign communicated in an auditory fashion to a visually disabled
person so all these developments or advancements have happen only because people have understand
these barriers and a word towards mitigating these barriers so that is very essential area
which we need to understand and learn about that is why I am was spending some time on
making you understand about the barriers of communication. So now if we look at the next level of barrier
which is the technological multitasking and observance and criticism and low confidence
these two are very important from our models standpoint or form what is sociological interactions
and point that we are going through in this particular error we are bombarded with technological
advancements we are bombarded with media. We are bombarded with handle gadgets and utilities
and all of these have lot of information lot of communication for collating to us all the
time and this leads to observance of that manier times two things tend to happen manier
is miss out and certain things and we fail to respond to certain communicational needs
in certain manner and second we are manner times responding in a manner where the true
information is not percolated we are doing taking a quick action because of the observance
because of the multitasking we are associated with. So we are taking a quick stand on some kind
of information and hence the communication is lost as we talked about talk about during
this course of propagation this encoding and decoding structuring of message you need to
please pay attention into spend some time in this we can structure a heavy structuring
and restructuring of these messages that feels are that is reduced to a great extent in many
of the case. So that leads to this kind ambiguity manier
time an also the fear if criticism or manier times fear lack of confidence in communication
also leads to a barrier which is manier times we are all very socially visible in today’s
world so manier times we fear to criticism manier times we fear communicating a particular
information with the fear that this could affect this social status of that particular
individual or there could be other facts for that matter but the idea here is there is
a fear for communication there is a fear information percolation in many case and which leads to
barrier in manier times. And there are there could be other forms other
forms of barriers which could be different gender community and discriminatory barriers
so individuals feeling a part of a particular discrimination discriminated group may often
lead to some kind of communication barrier they might not be communicating or informing
certain things which otherwise would have happened and as I talked about earlier as
I talked about this earlier as well many a times there are communicators who tend to
bypass certain information and many a times there are communicators who tend to mislead
or it is not intentionally most of the cases it is only going to the fact you really do
not have sufficient information or you really do not have the data and knowledge. Or nothing the data with the knowledge together
and thus you start percolating the thing the immature or the half developed information
which can make you lot of misunderstanding so there could be bypassing where you are
actually not informing or you are not letting out some communication to happen or it could
be other way also where you are letting out some information which are not really required
and which could be misleading. So these are in short all the barriers which
are prevalent in communication there could be many there could be combination of these
barriers happening in a particular situation in a particular case and these barriers need
to be sorted out otherwise the information communication will always have a point where
it will add or it will always have a limited conveyance to the different users city cater
into. So now let us again go back to our bicycle
story I am very fond of this bicycle story many a times her talk about the aspect that
communication is very cultural biased or it is dependent on culture to agree extent and
it is related to cultural as specs no wonder it is very important to understand that particular
culture when we are talking about communication or information percolation within that culture
or cross culture. But the question is, how and why culture is
so important and what is the role of culture how does it play in the entire arena of information
and communication, so again going back to that bicycle story this is the key why cultural
aspect is very important because first the context we talked about relates to a particular
culture with base the need called the communication the very set up why we are communicating at
in first place. Is relating to a context you know I thought
told about me and my friend and I having notice this bicycle say for example this was happening
in a different culture where actually you tend not to point things or not to show particular
object to a particular individual may be there is a culture that exists where you do not
point or show a particular object to your friend, in that particular context. In a whole premise of communication would
have been very difficult we would not I would not have pointed to that bicycle for that
matter, or may be let us take another example where these are cultural association say a
bicycle or in this case it is a bicycle say in object it should not be pointed because
it has some kind of socio religious connotation so in that particular case I would never point
and show that bicycle to my friend. Just giving me a rough example to understand
so this set of context is definitely and very strongly related to the cultural aspects now
let us look at the next thing we talked about is the experiences that we have, since our
childhood our experiences are routed to the society where we have grown up this routed
to the culture where our parents family and friends belong to, the kind os schools we
have visited to. The kind of education that we have received
so all of this form or all of this fall under particular cultural impedance it forms it
falls under some kind of cultural set up cultural mechanism. Cultural ecology within this all of these
things are happening since our childhood so definitely the second aspect as well all our
experiences are very routed to the culture, so as you can understand the first the context
is ready to culture. It experiences are related to culture or exposure
to different culture so these two form the very strong bases, why our communication or
information the way we behave and act now may be called collating information the way
we communicate with each other is related to culture, now coming to the third aspect
which we talked about which was the assumption that I am making which are the human aspects
of communication we talked about. Where we are trying to share we are trying
to help another person assuming certain things assuming some better situations in the first
place so these assumptions definitely are routed to culture we talked about values when
we talked about assumption, so it has its bases based on values and then values are
based on the cultural premise that you that you have, so if you look at now context experiences
and assumptions. Al three are very closely meet with culture
they evolve with culture, they evolve with kind of set up that you as an individual grow
up that I as an individual grow up but as a group or a community or a organization as
a whole has evolved so it is very, very dependent on that and looking at to this context when
we are living in a world where cultures melt with each other we live in a world where the
cultures cross and interact with each other this is even very, very important to understand
where we are going international where we are going global and where we are going local,
where we are going very routed to the culture and where we are falling flat. So probably understanding the context experiences
and assumptions in a case to case manner would help us dissect and understand this better. Now if we move on to the next aspect of communication
which is happening in two different modes or components so communication has two different
communication component one is the verbal component and the other is the non-verbal
component, so we have learned that there are communication which takes place in terms of
language which is the most prevalent and the most common form of communication as soon
as we talk of communication. But we should also understand that there are
innumerous ways of communicating non verbally as well and what are those ways of communicating
non verbally first is the paralinguistics, paralinguistics is the tone or the pitch or
the vocal modulation that I have in my voice so that also leads to a particular kind of
communication so that deals with paralinguistics where we are actually talking about the modality
the sound quality of communication. So that also plays a very, very important
role in communication. The other is the proxemics so in case of architecture
interior design or even when it comes to sociology proxemics plays a very, very important role
in terms of non verbal communication it relates to the spaces, so whenever we are in a social
domain we are actually in proximity or we are in a distance so there is a physical distance
and that relates to proxemics, so many our times we talk about a personal bubble so each
one of us is having a personal bubble around it and the bubble is roughly the arms distance. So if we have our arms straightened out if
we draw a sphere around this arm straightened out that is the personal bubble we talk about
and the communication within the personal bubble which happens is very different from
the communication which happens beyond the personal bubble or further, so there are difference
between this proxemics the distance from you as a communicator or a receiver, so that also
plays a very, very important role in terms of non verbal communication. Then there are other aspects of communication
which are various artifacts which are the dress code or the accessories they also lead
to various kind of communication in modalities of non verbal communication, then there is
chronemics which is the time aspect of communication so whenever we are communicating verbally
whenever we are communicating in other means by other means also it is in reference with
time it is in reference to a particular sequence in space and time which is very, very interesting
aspect to look at that communication has a time aspect inherent with it and that also
forms as a non verbal mode of communication. So while I am speaking I am communicating
this particular lecture you can see that I am having this tonal variation I am having
I am making this tonal variations which is in the domain of paralinguistics, I am making
this gestural movement which are in the proxemics aspect I am wearing certain kind of a tire,
I have certain kind of accessories that is also communicating to you in a certain manner
in forms of artifacts and when there is chronemics where I am using a pause many a times I am
speaking fast many a times I am speaking slow there is break within this lectures so all
of these together is forming a non verbal mode of communication which is from chronemics. But that is also a very, very curial aspect
of communication as you can understand, and then there is kinesics which I talked about
which is related to the gesture so this relates to the gesture and last but not the least
in the visual which is the domain that we try to work on before we move on the visual
domain this is the reason why I am giving you the idea of the entire risen of communication
and information and within that visual aspect is one part of it, it is very, very essential
no doubt we are communicating visually all the time but the aspect of visual communication
needs to be considered as part of a bigger whole as part of a bigger domain and this
gives us an idea to that. So moving on with the theme of our lecture
today we are talking about media. As such in a playing a role in the communication. So if we refer back to our earlier diagram
where we have shown this act of propagation and conveying just like sound, sound cannot
propagate without a media sound requires the medium for its propagation similarly communication
or convince and propagation of ideas and information needs a media needs a background need the
basis based on which this works out. So we talked about signals so these signals
are triggered in form of certain kind of media packages the form of media could be carried
the form of media could be multiple combination singular but all of it together helps in communication
and propagation of this information. So the channel of communication could be many
the channel of the communication could be visual the channel of communication could
be auditory sound the channel of communication could be tactile for people with visual disability
they use brain so the communication can happen by your tactile interface also it could be
haptic where it relates to movement and touching it could be olfactory also to a to some extent
it could be kinesics where the movement and where you are the position of a particular
individual place a role it could be electromagnetic biochemical and last but not the least is
the abstract languages . Human beings have developed this say in numerous
number of languages and which is so facing something which is very abstract yet from
the basis of communication and show is visual communication which is very basic yet need
and understanding for it to be percolated for it to move from one to another without
a loss without a failure in terms of comprehension and analysis so that action could be taken
properly at the receivers end if you remember the model of communication we talked about
in a last class. So if you look at if we refer back to this
particular diagram so form the communicator to the receiver and this goes in this direction
and last bit of the diagram was taking an action so the receiver needs to an action
which is intended sop the action has to be in line with intend of the communicator, so
to in order to get the action right and get it work we need to make sure that the channels
of communications are properly done and it is properly communicated. So now coming to media helping us in terms
of communication media is basically a tool to store and deliver information the diagram
actually given understanding of that the work in a set of media in order to propagate and
it acts as a tool it help us to store to propagate to communicate this information and deliver
this information so medial could be bifurcated into particular aspects one could be a communication
media and another cold be a mass media. So we all are aware of mass media which is
news paper television and many other forms of media in today’s world of digital media
so there are various mass communication which is happening which is communication happening
which is all at a certain for a mass or it could be ion smaller chunk in a communication
media it meant for a particular set of users or it meant for a particular audients, so
it can bifurcate in to this two aspects of a media. And then if you look at both of these aspects
are related to the developments in the technology, so if you at the development of communication
media is such or development of mass media is such it has ale\ways been in line or it
has always evolved with the course of development of the technology, so at one point of time
human beings used clay pallets caperers’ for putting down that before that it was shruthy
it was based on learning by listening there was no other mode of documenting need. That was the communication media at that particular
point of time then with the advent of technology with the advent of development of newer materials
it moved on to writing and then we moved on with printing press with different channels
of communication if in photography cinematography development of digital media coming in to
picture and then in today’s world propagation of media as well by world wide web and other
channels crated a technological evolution from time to time and based on that this toe
communication media and mass media has also kept on evolving keeping in mind to the technological
advancement. So that brings us to the end of this particular
lecture series which is talking about information communication and media in our next lecture
we will starting talking about visual perception and visual communication. Thank you.

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