Saturn’s Mysterious Moons

Launched three years before the new century…
a spacecraft wound its way through the empty reaches of the solar system. On Earth, its progress was little noted, as
it swung twice by the planet Venus, then our moon. And Earth. The asteroid belt. And Jupiter. Almost seven years later, on the first of
July 2004, the Cassini probe entered the orbit of Saturn. It then began to compile what has
become one of the greatest photographic collections of all time, of a giant gas planet, surrounded
by colorful rings, guarded by a diverse collection of moons, and millions of tiny moonlets. Within this record, is a trail of clues…
pointing to the energy sources and complex chemistry needed to spawn life. What are these
mysterious worlds telling us about the universe, and Earth? In the outer reaches of the solar system,
a billion and a half kilometers from the Sun… there is a little world known as Enceladus.
Nearly all of the sunlight that strikes its icy surface is reflected back into space,
making it one of the brightest objects in the solar system. At its equator, the average temperature is
minus 198 degrees Celsius. It can rise about 70 degrees higher in grooves that stretch
across the south pole like tiger stripes. Looming over it is the giant planet Saturn. In myth, Saturn – the Roman name for the primal
Greek God Chronos – was the youngest son of Gaia, or Earth, and Uranus, sky. Wielding a scythe provided by his mother,
the story goes, Saturn confronted his abusive father, castrating him. The blood of Uranus
flowed into the seas, fertilizing the Earth and giving rise to Enceladus and other giant
offspring. Saturn’s moon Enceladus has its own tangled
story. In 2005, the Cassini spacecraft spotted plumes of water vapor shooting out into space
from several locations near its south pole. More recent close encounters have revealed
jets of water, flavored by slightly salty chemical compounds, spewing out from vents
in the rough, cracked polar terrain. That may mean that Enceladus harbors a remarkable
secret below its frigid surface: A liquid ocean, and perhaps, a chemical environment
that could spawn simple life forms. It’s not the only promising stop in the realm
of Saturn. The moon Titan is often said to resemble Earth in its early days. It is lined
with volcanoes and a hazy atmosphere rich in organic compounds. While Enceladus is the size of Great Britain,
Titan is ten times larger, 50% larger than our moon, and the second largest moon in our
solar system. We’ve known about Titan since the astronomer
Christian Huygens discovered it in 1655, and Enceladus since William Herschel spotted it
in August 1789, just after the start of the French Revolution. Scientists began to investigate these moons
in earnest with the launch of the two Voyager spacecraft in 1977. The lineup of outer planets
in the solar system allowed the spacecraft to fly past each of them. Along the way, they sent back tens of thousands
of images, of planetary realms more diverse than anyone had imagined. These long-distance
marathon flyers – both now headed out toward interstellar space – made discoveries about
the chemical environments that have turned these planets into gigantic works of abstract
art. They also disclosed new details about their
magnetic fields, atmospheres, ring systems, and inner cores. But what really turned heads
were the varied shapes and surfaces of their moons. They’ve all been pummeled over the millennia
by wayward asteroids and comets. A few appear to be sculpted by forces below their surfaces.
Neptune’s largest moon Triton has few craters. It’s marked with circular depressions bounded
by rugged ridges. There are also grooves and folds that stretch for dozens of miles, a
sign of fracturing and deforming. Triton has geysers too, shooting some five
miles above the surface. But on this frigid moon – so far from the Sun – the liquid that
spouts is not water but nitrogen. Tiny Miranda, one of 27 known moons that orbit
Uranus, wears a jumbled skin that’s been shaped and reshaped by forces within. Jupiter’s moon Io – orbiting perilously close
to the giant planet is literally turning itself inside out. Rivers of lava roll down from
open craters that erupt like fountains. What’s causing these tiny moons to come to
life? The surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa offers a window into the churning activity
at its core. Flying by Europa, Voyager documented a complex
network of criss-crossing grooves and ridges. In the 1990s, the Galileo spacecraft went
back to get a closer look. It found that Europa’s surface is a crazy quilt of fractured plates,
cliff faces and gullies… amid long grooves like a network of superhighways. How did it
get like this? Europa orbits Jupiter in a slight ellipse,
diving in close before swinging wide. That allows the massive planet’s gravity to constantly
tug at its rocky center. The friction of rock rubbing on rock causes that core to heat up. Then, heat rising up through a subsurface
ocean of liquid water cracks, and shifts, and spreads the icy surface in a thousand
different ways. Europa’s neighbors, Callisto and Ganymede, show similar features, suggesting
they too may have liquid oceans below their surfaces. Crossing outward to Saturn, Voyager found
a similar surface on the moon Enceladus. So when the Cassini spacecraft arrived in 2004,
it came looking for answers to a range of burning questions: if this moon and others
have subsurface oceans? Do they also have the ability to cook up and support life? And
what could they tell us about the origin of life throughout the galaxy? Cassini came equipped with 12 separate instruments
to analyze light waves, to figure out the composition of dust, measure magnetic fields,
and more. After a year in orbit, Cassini let go of its
traveling companion, the Huygens probe… and sent it parachuting down to the surface
of Titan. Unexpected crosswinds buffeted Huygens’ parachute,
but the probe was able to snatch a wealth of revealing information. Its on-board radar showed a complex topography
with ridges, rivers, and lakes, and even rocks on the ground. Titan’s atmosphere is thick and cold. Like
Earth, the air here is mostly nitrogen gas. What’s more, Titan’s muddy, wet terrain is
laced with organic compounds. On our planet, it’s water that cycles from ice to steam.
On Titan, it’s methane. Methane gurgles up from the ground in liquid
form and flows into lakes. It freezes in spots, or floats off as gas in orange clouds. This
image shows a flash of sunlight reflecting off a sprawling 400,000 square kilometer lake
known as Kraken Mare. Scientists consider Titan to be a possible
mirror of Earth in its early days with the chemistry of life still in its earliest stages.
That’s why they are so eager to explore its varied landscapes. So far, radar passes by
Cassini have revealed expansive dune fields, wetlands, hilly terrain, and the occasional
crater. Scientists mapped an area near Titan’s south
pole called Sikun Labyrinthus. The image shows a network of canyons and cliffs sculpted by
liquid methane. Nearby, methane flows into a lake called Ontario
Lacus. A little smaller than Lake Michigan, it’s bounded by bays, river deltas, beaches,
and other familiar features.
And here, in a region called Sotra Facula. Cassini mapped what looks like a volcano.
Thousand meter high peaks tower over craters that are 1500 meters deep. Are these features the result of an internal
heat source, like the grooves that line Enceladus and Europa? Or is Titan’s story unique? Cassini has been sending a stream of images
and data across nearly a billion and a half kilometers to Earth. It has been able to draw
an impressive portrait of a ringed planet, a turbulent gas giant. Cassini’s sensors captured a storm that raged
across Saturn’s southern hemisphere for months – generating lightning strikes thousands of
times more powerful than those on Earth. They documented a giant cyclone spinning around
at Saturn’s south pole. Its eye is so big you could drop the entire continental United
States into it without touching the cloud walls. Cassini radioed back unprecedented new details
of Saturn’s most famous feature, its rings. In the year 1610, the Italian astronomer Galileo
Galilei discovered these broad, flat concentric bands. But he didn’t realize they were actually
rings, nor had he any clue how intricate they are, or where they came from. Until recently, the reigning theory held that
the rings were made up of debris from a small moon destroyed in a collision. But they are
now known to be 99.9% water ice. How it got there seems to reach back again to Greek myth. Fearing vengeance from the offspring of Uranus,
Saturn began to savagely devour the young titan offspring. The youngest, Zeus, escaped
unharmed and later on would lead an insurrection by the Olympian Gods. A recent study suggests that Saturn’s rings
formed when the planet swallowed one of its moons. In the process, its gravity stripped
the moon of its icy surface, which remained in orbit and spread out to form the rings.
And from the rings, smaller, ice moons like Enceladus took shape. The Hubble Space Telescope showed that Saturn’s
rings stretch more than 240,000 kilometers across. Yet in some places they are as little
as 10 meters thick. If you were to shrink Saturn down to the size of a basketball, the
rings would be about 1/250th the thickness of a human hair. Around Saturn everything acts upon everything
else. Moons and countless tiny moonlets pull and tug on ring particles – shaping and twisting
and clearing lanes, in a dance of twilight moons. The medium-sized moon Mimas, orbiting
close in to Saturn, has hollowed out a large gap called the Cassini Division. Some tiny moons ride within the rings. Prometheus
and Pandora actually hold the F-Ring in line. Other moons continually sculpt the rings,
gently shepherding the granules with their gravity. And across the ring plane, spokes of different
colored dust occasionally cling like strands of hair on a cold dry day. Like the rings,
Saturn’s moons each tell a different story, drawing us in for a closer look. There’s dense
little Dione, hard rock covered with ice, pummeled on one side by asteroids that left
a system of craggy cliff faces. Hyperion: looks like a sponge. It’s an oddly-shaped
world that tumbles chaotically. Iapetus: with one hemisphere brighter than
snow and the other darker than tar. A strange ridge, like the spine of a rhino, runs around
its equator. It’s the moons Titan, and Enceladus that continue to steal the show. Compared to many of its sister moons, Enceladus
has fewer craters. Even the largest is relatively small, only 35 kilometers across. Like Europa,
its landscape is fractured and wrinkled, a sign that it’s constantly being reshaped by
geologic activity. Enceladus lies outside of Saturn’s bright
inner rings, in the wide and diffuse E Ring. With Cassini’s camera pointed at just the
right angle to the sun, the E Ring lit up. Enceladus is the bright object in the center
of the frame. What is all this hazy material made of? Could it be coming from the moon
itself? The Cassini science team suspected that they
were onto something big. So they went to work: plotting new orbital paths, building a new
target list, and preparing to pay Enceladus a visit. They set the spacecraft on course for a series
of close flybys of its south pole, down to about 25 kilometers above its surface. This
is what Cassini saw: plumes of vapor rising out of the ice. Scientists began to think of them as geysers,
much like those in geologic hot spots on earth. If the team could find out what these jets
are made of, they might just have some clues to what’s going on below the surface. Flying through the E Ring, Cassini sampled
particles within it. It found crystals of water, and within them, it detected the presence
of a compound well known on Earth: salt. Salt dissolved in water is evidence that friction
from a rocky core, jostled by Saturn’s gravity, warms a reservoir of liquid water below the
icy surface of Enceladus. Another flythrough found water molecules that
are negatively charged. On Earth, that’s a product of waves smashing a shoreline or water
flowing over a waterfall. And there’s even more to get excited about. The plumes were
found to contain nitrogen, likely given off by ammonia heated to nearly 600 degrees Celsius. Here’s a diagram illustrating the possible
set up. Powering the geysers is an underground reservoir heated and pressurized by an internal
heat source. Close in observations of Enceladus show the disfiguring effect of all this activity
on its south pole. How amazing that even out here, about nine
and a half times the distance between Earth and the sun, this frozen little moon might
just harbor the conditions needed to turn chemistry into biology. If Enceladus holds its secrets in, those of
Titan are written on its surface. Scientists fed data from Cassini’s radar instrument into
computer models designed to explore the relationship between its surface and its interior. Their
findings suggested that Titan’s interior has been steadily cooling. That has caused the
moon to shrink, and its surface to wrinkle into a pattern of ridges and valleys. In addition, a recent NASA study found little
evidence that an internal heat source is currently shaping Titan’s surface. The study found that
most of its features can be explained by impacts, or by this moon’s surprisingly active weather. For eight years, astronomers at the Gemini
Telescope in Hawaii had been monitoring infrared light streaming in from the Saturn system.
For the first time, on Titan, they saw evidence of a massive storm erupting over what’s thought
to be a vast equatorial desert. Cassini has picked up clouds swirling above large methane
lakes and seas on the North Pole. And now along the equator, in the large arrow-shaped
cloud formation to the left. Notice the dark regions in the center of the moon. These are
thought to be from methane rain drenching the landscape. The clouds likely formed in
the recent change of seasons as the sun began to shine directly down on Titan’s equator. It may not be completely crazy to imagine
primitive forms of life arising out of this cold carbon-rich chemistry. One theory is
that ultra-violet light from the sun could zap nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere,
creating a kind of organic smog that could settle into volcanically active places along
the surface, and develop from there. Meanwhile, Cassini keeps adding to its historic
collection of data and images. With Saturn moving into its farthest point from the Sun,
its rings lay flat on the plane of the solar system. The angle of the light allowed objects to
cast long shadows across the rings, like this little moon, never before seen. Or these moons
that seem to have punched through the F Ring. Cassini completed its primary mission back
in 2008. Based on all its successes, it’s now set to keep padding its amazing record
until at least the year 2017. At this point, no one can say whether Saturn’s
moons have ignited the spark of life. They have certainly ignited our imaginations. 6

100 thoughts on “Saturn’s Mysterious Moons

  1. HEE' where are AAAALLL the thousands and thousands satellite's around the earth ??!
    There wasn't NOT ONE OR ONE GLIMPSE ??? WTF !!

  2. good doc. voyager is now on an interstellar journey, sent out with energy enough to exceed the escape velocity of the Sun on a hyperbolic course out of the solar system, past the Oort cloud and the Suns heliosphere. where is it headed for ? it's the mercy of the gravitation influence the nearest cluster of stars…..

  3. 매일영상만으로 봐도 신비로운 우주… 죽기전에 기술이 발달되어서 꼭한번 여행하고싶내..ㅠ

  4. if someone thiñks a fire ball rising in the east sets in the West but not sun! what's up to Sun? Does it melt away.

  5. Am I the only one that got bothered at 13:20 when he said you could drop the whole continent of United States into the eye of the storm without touching it's cloud walls? United States isn't a continent…. it's a country… North America is the continent =

  6. "organic compounds settle near volcano and develop from there"…. Um so what do we know about the moons again?

  7. @15 mins if you did shrink saturn down to the size of a basketball i for one would be very very annoyed, do not even attempt this, you have been warned nasa.

  8. This narrator must teacher Maths…he so good in his illustration,and facts ,and the manner he attaches,past events to narrates,his topics, quiet impressive,even the dumbest,will never fell asleep on a subjects.."watch and listen to ways he exhibits,an explanation to the Universe.."….A1..Teacher…Sir, l stand-up in salute"..An UPCOMING…teacher…my respects..

  9. I like these documentaries. It's not the usual overly bombastic super simplified Discovery Channel BS.
    I guess it's from a time where these still were made for adults.

  10. Let's not forget as well that William Herschel also discovered Saturn's Death Star-like rocky moon Mimas.

  11. According to Wikipedia Enceladus is at least 3 times the size of GB (~800,000 km^2), and Titan is about a 100 times that, circa 83 million km^2.

  12. Good info, I just wish they'd stop making these documentaries with the same soundtrack and narrarator theyve been using since 2001. I cant ever tell if what im watching is a new doc because they are all exactly the same. There's way too much time spent on "HEY LOOK AT OUR BAD CGI JOB AND BE AMAZED" This is why these "official" docs are failing and random guys youtube channels are more successful.

  13. Many of the other moons are small: 34 are less than 10 km in diameter and another 14 between 10 and 50 km in diameter.




  17. Just our solar system is so diverse and fascinating. I am in awe and wonder at what else is out there. It helps us understand so much about our world like variations or stages in the development of Earth. Effort, money and other resources well spent I think.

  18. The Music Soundtrack to this Doc is OUTSTANDING! I recognize some of the classical pieces, but does anyone know what the Gorgeous Piano music is starting at minute 1:40 ? I need to know! Thanks

  19. "Gas giant". Do you really believe that an entire planet can be made out of gas and that there are those in the solar system?

  20. В Египте Жрецы и Фараоны проходили посвящение в Пирамиде Хеопса. Если сейчас кто – то выполнит инициацию и выйдет через шахты, то увидит следующее – пирамида не работает, от нее идет небольшой поток. Но почему – то после выхода сразу тянет как магнитом на ось Пирамиды. Находясь в этом пространстве, воспринимаешь его как будто оно искусственное.
    Когда выходишь с камеры Фараона через шахту с южной стороны, то двигаешься не в сторону созвездия Орион и звезду Ал – Нитак. А немного удаляешься западней от созвездия Орион. И в этот момент я заметил, что на оси Пирамиды находился очень большой куб, но без дна. И между этим кубическим пространством и созвездием Дракона находится ещё и Сфера. Тебя притягивает как магнитом в неё. И приближаясь ты как бы сам становишься ей или же сливаешься с ней. Эта сфера как бы ментальная пустая и куб то же пустой. Кстати, когда двигаешься к созвездию Орион его еле видно двигаешься как в тёмной пустоте.
    От сферы в верх до созвездия Дракона есть пространство, по которому можно двигаться, оно освещалось солнцем, а выше созвездия идёт уже уплотнение. Мы под куполом (цирка). Открыто созвездие Большой Медведицы и Солнце. За Солнцем далеко есть еще звезда, больше Солнца раз в шесть. Когда смотришь в низ с этой высоты на землю ее большую часть вообще не видно просто темнота. Но там где восходило Солнце земля была круглой..

  21. Подсознание связывает нас с Астральной реальностью и ее сознанием. Если человек с помощью техник или программ активирует свое подсознание. Оно вначале начнет процесс самоочищение своего внутреннего пространства объема. У нас в голове ориентируясь на Астральное сознание, которое не в нас принимая его за эталон. Подсознание включает свой внутренний обьем виденье. Мы наблюдаем процесс очищение и соединение нашего внутреннего Астрального сознания с внешним. Включенное внутреннее Астральное сознание это некий 3Д обьем внутреннее виденье. Мы наблюдаем в Астральном сознании не кую черную 3д материю. (Это не ментальный экран. Астральное сознание находится уровнем выше Ментального). Далее энергоинформационные вибрационные волны с двух сторон как бы вымывают эту материю. Это можно сравнить с черным куском льда тающим с начала по бокам к центру. Энергоинформационные вибрационные волны чистят, Астральный обьем он приобретает, внешние свойства и качества. Не все люди развивают, свою энергоинформационную систему не качают, потоки ВП и НП, не развевают уровни сознания и чакры, не принимают свет. За гранью нас есть то, что могло бы быть частью нас.

  22. The music does not match the video content, it is too loud, and it is very distracting. What were you thinking?

  23. WoW! GOD, YOU made all these wonderful things. I am awe struck of YOU and all YOU have done and do. Most of all, I am surprised that you saved a wretch like me. Thank YOU, LORD :(….

  24. Pretty pictures. Nice animations of assumptions made by NASA "astrophysicists".
    I see evidence of electrical catastrophic alterations to the surfaces of all the solid moons.
    I have always been amazed by the relatively small distance the rings are from the planet. That alone seems to indicate a fairly recent origin. Their behaviors also seem to be manifestations of Birkland Currents, concentric, sorting, maintained by the input of electrical currents and the resulting magnetism.

  25. Here's a different diagram of Enceladus' surface.
    Solid, no atmosphere, cold.
    Electron flow from Saturn's larger Birkland Current exchanges charges in direct nonmediated lightening strikes magnitudes more energetic than those currently experienced on Earth.
    This alone might be the cause of the Sodium and the Chlorine by a mechanism of transmutation.
    The photo at 1:02 minutes is the perfect example of an electrical excavation. Check the "crater" lip. All vertical tubes like around a sunspot. Frozen.
    Pretty cool, all the vertically oriented and not one angled "impact strike". Hilariously stupid assumptions parading as expert socially agreed settled (Nazi) Science. Enough please!
    Join the 20th centuary at least.

  26. Has anybody considered playing the rings of Jupiter, like a 33sp, LP Album?
    I just did.
    Surely someone out there can write this simple program.
    You're welcome, innanet!

  27. The Hexagon on Saturn is actually a cymatic light effect of the rings themselves, not a storm or a portal…the rotation you see in the hexagon is actually the planet itself rotating in contrast to the rings reflection… i have a scientifically reproduceable setup to demonstrate this effect, check out the vid on my channel for proof.. use subtitles. btw, if you look closely you see reflections of the rings going up and down the reflective sphere called Saturn… and you see the circles compressing into a hexagon as the circumference lessens towards the poles. Light bends (or expands) around corners but apparently it compresses also around spheres and other geometries. Ive never heard that explanation given scientifcally so I think i deserve credit for that discovery (Soweto M)…

  28. The Cassini mission was the most wonderful and beautiful Mission nasad had ever done. In the Mars rovers showed us things we couldn't imagine. Space exploration has got to be the most fascinating thing ever.

  29. In the deepest, darkest and coldest depths of Earth's oceans, around fissures of volcanic activity, the chemicals and gases that are released produce the bacteria that feeds extremophiles that exist there. We will one day send probes into the cracked ice sheets of Europa and be most likely amazed at our findings of life there.

  30. Sure…. Seems logical. Saturn swallowed a moon and belched out its rings. Shrink it down to basketball size and you could bounce it to Jupiter from Earth. WTF???? I love how people will believe anything. Liam Neeson said it so it must be absolutely true! It must be factual even though we supposedly haven't been there except for a couple probes of ours. It would be nice if NASA released the real unedited images from their missions, and not images that have been completely fabricated, or highly smudged out. Maybe one day we will be a society fit for NASA to tell us the truth? Maybe one day we come to our senses and demand the truth or we stop funding them with OUR TAX MONEY. Wake up people! We haven't needed rocket power to go to space for at least 60 years now! NASA is still following the advice from The Brooking's Report. Which mandates NASA to not tell us what they find because society would collapse (according to the report)

  31. beside the astronomy i think we should look back more closely to the old mithologies of nations about how the solar system was created.;Wars of gods.!What really was going on in those times!?The far past probably was completely crazy time.Titans.'Galactical

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